The Joseph A. Caulder Collection
Past Rotary International Director 1928-29   -  Regina, Sask., Canada

"Eyewitness to Rotary International's First 50 Years"


JOSEPH A. CAULDER - An eyewitness to Rotary International's first 50 years.

Rotary Information Book 3

Pages A.1 to B.5                Pages C.1 to C.80                Pages J.1 to N            Pages O-1 to W-17 

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Page D. 1 (Pagination as in Original)


(These words were first used at a Rotary meeting or convention by Arthur Frederick Sheldon of Chicago, at the second Convention of the International Association of Rotary Clubs of America. Sheldon and Ches. Perry had joined Chicago number 1 in January 1908 and both of these men were to leave their mark on this new and fast growing organization. Sheldon was ill so could not deliver his address so it was read by Secretary (of the National Association) Ches. Perry. B. Frank Collins, President of the Minneapolis Club followed Perry and in his address he said, "The motto of my Minneapolis Club is -Service Above Self." This address was not published in the convention proceedings but was published in The National Rotarian a few months later.- J.A.C.)

"I believe - -

That we are living in a scientific age, one in which all lines of useful effort are rapidly becoming reduced to a scientific basis.

That we are living in an age of the survival of the fittest.

That it means more to be fit today than it did ten years ago.

That it will mean more to be fit ten years from now than it does today.

That we are living in a commercial age, and that commerce or business is a science.


Page D. 2



That a science is simply classified common sense based upon proper seeing, grasping, comparing and recording of facts,

That a profession is a Science practiced.

That the science of business is the science of service, he profits most who serves best.

That when business getting and business building are reduced to a science by organizing the knowledge pertaining to them we thereby elevate business to a professional plane.

That the success of any institution is the sum of the successes of the people engaged in its service.

That no house is greater than its representatives and that every one connected with the house is its representative.

That a house is known by the customers it keeps.

That both the getting and keeping of customers depends upon the efficiency of its representatives.

That in the broad sense every one is a salesman; each has something to sell, whether it be services or goods.

That success in life commercially hinges upon business building, the art of securing permanent and profitable patronage.

That the life-bleed of business building is salesmanship, the power to persuade people


Page D. 3



to purchase product at a profit.

That the heart which pumps the life-blood of salesmanship is service - - the power to serve to the end of satisfaction and profit of both buyer and seller.

That all of the natural laws of success may be boiled down to four injunctions which apply especially to the salesman. These are: First, Man, know thyself; second, know the other fellow; third, know thy business; fourth, apply this knowledge.

More in detail these injunctions maybe stated as follows:

First, he must have a good knowledge of himself. This knowledge, applied, secures for him that confidence which is the basis of all trade.

Second, he must have an accurate knowledge of human nature, so as to deal with the customer in the most intelligent manner; his individuality, needs, moods and whims.

Third, he must be able so to analyze his goods or proposition, that the points brought out will show to the best advantage the desirability or utility of the thing under consideration. This is logic.

Fourth, he must have a knowledge of the Mental Law of Sale and how to lead the mind of his customer through different steps. Here is where a practical aspect is given to psychology.

(see over)

Page D. 4



That those upon whom rests the burden of making and distributing the world's products are entitled to the enlightening and uplifting influence of science as much as anyone can be.

That this enlightening and uplifting influence can be spread only through education.

That education is eduction, drawing out, development of the positive or desirable qualities.

That this eduction is the WHAT of education.

That the HOW of it is two-fold; first, nourishment, and, second, use.

That the mental man must have mental exercise and mental food as a means of growth as certainly as must the physical.

That the fruits of education are health, money, honor and harmonious adaptation to environment, as well as cultures that these are reliability, endurance and action as well as ability.

That the educative process may be applied to the development of the body, the sensibilities or feelings, and to the will as well as to the intellect.

That the result of the education of the positive qualities of the intellect is ability or intellectual capacity; of the sensibilities, reliability; of the body, endurances of the will, action.


Page D. 5



That therefore the prime purpose of true education is mo increase man's area. AREA being spelled with the initials of these four words.

That success in life in its broad sense is a matter not of luck or chance, but is governed by laws of nature - mental, moral, physical and spiritual.

That to work in harmony with all of theme laws would mean success of the highest order.

That to violate some of them means only partial success.

That to violate enough of them means failure.

That it is possible to discern and teach these natural laws and that to do so is better than to cram the head of the student with much that is now taught in the name of education.

That all men and women have the same inherent faculties and qualities, the difference being only on degree of development.

That a good quality well developed is positive – undeveloped or abnormally developed, it is a negative.

That the positive qualities are the instruments for the expression of these natural laws.

That when the qualities are made right the man is made right.

(see over)

Page D. 6



That when the man is made right the work takes care of itself.

That man’s value to himself, to his employer and as a citizen increases as his need for supervision decreases.

That his need of supervision is occasioned by errors of omission and errors of commission.

That the errors are caused by the negatives.

That the negatives are overcome by the development of the positives.

That the product of positive quality development is AREA, or ability, reliability, endurance and action.

That since every normal human being possesses a body, an intellect, feelings and will, therefore nature has blessed each with the raw material out of which to manufacture more AREA.

That these four factors developed and exercised by any given individual insure success of the permanent and increasing kind.

That the human race passes through four stages from the standpoint of the evolution of intelligence: first, ignorance; second, knowledge; third, learning; fourth, wisdom.

That the road to wisdom is through the education of the positive qualities.

(cont 'd, )

Page D. 7



That the people of every vocation are divided into four classes from the standpoint of efficiency: First, the indifferent; second, the students; third, the adapts; fourth, the masters.

That the road to mastership is the drawing out of the positive qualities.

That the great successes in business and in history are those who have arrived at the state of mastership - whether as office boy, mechanics, salesmen, executives, warriors or kings.

That life is of four stages: First, non-consciousness of the vegetable and mineral kingdoms; second, the simple consciousness of the brute creatures; third, the self-consciousness of man who knows and feels and wills; and, fourth, cosmic consciousness, to which man is tending.

That comic consciousness is a development of the universal sense, an appreciation of the solidarity of the race, the all-oneness of things, the reality of the brotherhood of man, on which plane man comes to see the reality of the fact that in business or anywhere else, he profits most who serves best.

That the road to cosmic consciousness is the development of the positive qualities.

That the desire to serve develops as man passes from the selfish or self-conscious stage toward the wisdom of universal

(see over)

Page D. 8



consciousness. In other words, as we unselfishly enable others to succeed, we ourselves make progress towards success.

That the mental and soul existence which we call psychic is as real as bodily or physical life.

That man is evolving and that psychic evolution of man is dependent upon the development of the positive possibilities which exist in each normal human being.

That these faculties are all included in man’s physical power, his power to know and to feel and to will.

That true education nurtures, strengthens and develops the positive faculties.

That the positive qualities are then as natural a result as heat is a natural result of fire.

That every one has in him undeveloped capacity for more and better service; in business, in craftsmanship and in professional life,

That the rewards of service are sure for you and for each one. A. F. SHELDON"

(Sheldon’s "He Profits Most Who Serves Best" and CollinsI "Service Above Self" were not adopted officially by Rotary International until the Detroit Convention of 1950 when both were made official. J.A.C. )

Page E. 1

Toronto, Mar. 18,1963


"Mr. Laharry, what do you consider to be Rotary's most important purpose today?"

My personal concept of the ultimate objective of Rotary, I said, is the creation of a world fellowship on a person-to-person basis. Progress toward this goal is the keystone of my program this year. In the pursuit of this objective I think we should beware of the danger of narrow, immature nationalism so that we can get the free world together on the common basis of humanness. Peace, they say, begins in the minds of men, and, as such, the defenses of peace must also be built in the minds of men in order to prepare each individual for the realization that a warless world is possible only if each one of us is determined that "nation shall no longer lift sword against nation."

A striking example of what nations can do by the exercise of foresight and wise statesmanship has been provided by Britain, who voluntarily, gracefully, and bloodlessly surrendered her sovereignty over India and many other lands in Asia and Africa. Thereby, Britain did not liquidate an empire, but created a great reservoir of friendship among these people. Today in India, from the Himalayas to Cape Comorin, there are thousands of Britishers pursuing their vocations in goodwill and living in amity with the people of the country. These are bridges of friendship of which mankind can be justly proud: they span the chasm of this narrow and immature nationalism to which I have referred.

One world does not mean universal meddling. Nor does it many an attempt to herd

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Page E. 2


together humans into a polyglot society, or to impose one's way of life or beliefs upon others. In my own country we have been taught to believe in the essential oneness of all mankind under our Supreme Creator.

Thou hast made me known to friends I knew not

Thou has given me seats in homes not my own,

Thou hast brought the distant near and made a brother of the stranger.


So sang the great Indian poet Rabindranath Tagore. So also runs my dream of a world fellowship based upon neighborliness and friendliness."

MITISH C. LAHARRY – J. A. Caulder, 3/7/63

President Laharry has completed his year as President of Rotary International. Now he is enroute to his home in Calcutta, India. He has served Rotary well and made a worthwhile contribution to "world understanding". His slogan "Let Us Kindle The Spark Within", was well received and many experienced Rotarians feel he provided a very much needed motto. We may be resting on our care too much and we needed this gentle, kind hearted, cultured gentleman from Asia to drive home to us that Rotary has not reached the peak of its good influence but has only started. We hope to see him often in the future.

Page F. 1

* D. MacRAE incorrectly spelled throughout article. March 1963


"A name to be remembered in Rotary".

He was the first to suggest the addition of a Fourth object in Rotary which proposed that The International Association of Rotary Clubs make the development of International understanding a main plank in Rotary's platform.

This was the time when the future of Rotary was being charted and at the Los Angeles convention in June 1922, with Crawford McCullough presiding, an entire new Constitution and By-laws was adopted. These three conventions: Atlantic City, June 1920, presided over by Bert Adams - Edinburgh, Scotland, June 1921, presided over by Estes Snedecor, and Los Angeles, June 1922, at the close of Dr. Crawford McCullough’s year, were history making to a degree not seen before or since.

During these years, besides the Presidents of the International Association, such names as Chas. J, Burchell of Halifax; Donald McRae of Halifax and Samuel B. Botsford of Buffalo loom large, All were great men and real Rotarians. The Hon. Chas. J. Burchell is still with us and active in Rotary and in his law practice.

Below is a copy of a letter from Chas. Burchell to the undersigned and written at Halifax December 14th, 1962.

Also below is a copy of a report of a special committee on Rotary's Constitution and By-laws presented at Atlantic City in June 1920. Donald McRae did the drafting of this document

(see over)

Page F. 2


and no doubt was an important factor in developing it. The letter from Chas. Burchell tells the story in detail. There were two other reports, one in 1920 and a later one in January 1921 (McRae was then Chairman) which I would like to include in this volume but they would take up 100 pages. Anyone interested should peruse the Proceedings of the conventions of 1920-21 and 1922 in order to follow through on the tremendous amount of work which culminated in the new Constitution and By-laws being adopted at Los Angeles in June 1922 when the 4th Object was added and the name changed to Rotary International.

It seems unfortunate that the Toronto Club could not have made use of Donald McRae's great talents and Rotary knowledge when he moved to Toronto in 1924 and resided until his passing in 1957.


"The name of Dr. Donald McRae should always be enshrined in Rotary History as the author, draftsman, and promotor of the present fourth object of Rotary, commonly known as the "International Object."

His original draft of the object which was approved on his motion at the Rotary International Convention held in Scotland in June, 1921, was as follows:-


Page F. 3


"4th. To aid in the advancement of international peace and goodwill, through a fellowship of business and professional men of all nations united in the common ideal of Rotary service."

McRae was a graduate in Arts of Dalhousie University in Halifax, N.S. in the year 1908 and after graduation was a lecturer for several years at Princeton University when Woodrow Wilson was President. In 1914 he was admitted as a barrister in the Province of Ontario and in the same year was appointed to be Dean of the Law School at Dalhousie University. McRae became a member of the Rotary Club of Halifax, N.S. in 1915 and was a delegate from that Club to the International convention held at Atlanta, Georgia in June, 1917. On his way to that convention the story is told that McRae asked one of the other Halifax delegates if Rotary was merely a "flash-is-the-pan", and the reply he received was that he would not need to ask that question after his attendance at the convention.

At that convention a resolution was unanimously passed that no resolution could be presented for discussion at a Rotary Convention unless it was international in scope and character.

After the passage of that resolution McRae remarked that if it was followed Rotary would certainly become International and if developed in other countries of the world would be a strong force in the history of the world and would certainly not be a flash-in-the-pan.

(see over)

Page F. 5

He was one of the principal speakers at the Rotary Convention at Kansas City in June, 1918, his subject being International Peace, in which he expressed the thought that Rotary with its motto of service would prove to be of great value if developed internationally. At the date of his address Rotary Clubs had been organized in only three countries in the world, namely the United States of America, Canada and Great Britain.

At the International Convention held in Atlantic City in June, 1920, a committee on constitution and by-laws was appointed and was instructed to meet during the conference and consider suggestions for alterations in the form of government of Rotary as it then existed. The Committee was composed of five members, two from the United States, one from Canada, one from Scotland, and one from Cuba. The members from Scotland and Cuba were unable to attend the meetings and the remaining three members agreed that Donald McRae be asked to act as draftsman of the report.

The report of the committee which was drafted by McRae in conference with the members of the committee was presented to the conference and received unanimous approval. It contains seventeen paragraphs for the government of what the report called "International Rotary". A perusal of the report will show that it is the background of the present day government of Rotary and may perhaps be called the cornerstone of the foundation of Rotary.

Page F. 5


One of the members of the committee, Estes (Pete) Snedecor was appointed President of Rotary International at that convention and immediately appointed Donald McRae to be chairman of a committee to prepare a draft to form a new constitution and by-laws for Rotary in accordance with the recommendation contained in the report of the Atlantic City Convention.

When he was engaged in drafting a new constitution McRae noted that its objects did not contain any provision for the development of Rotary Internationally and prepared the draft of a new fourth international object forth international object which he submitted to the Board of Directors who approved it. His report contained forty-seven printed pages and was completed on January 24, 1921. It included a new fourth object reading as follows:-

"Fourth: To aid in the advancement of international peace and good will through a fellowship of business and professional men of all nations united in the common ideal of Rotary SERVICE."

And also contained the following explanatory note with respect to the above object:-

"In Section 1 a new paragraph has been introduced (Paragraph FOURTH) for the purpose of recognized among the objects of Rotary the promotion of International Peace and Good Will. This aspect of Rotary was emphasized particularly at the Atlantic City Convention. Past President Klumph spoke of a "league of men bound together by that warm friendship, that happy fellow-

(see over)

Page F. 6


ship and that great inspiration which is so characteristic and distinctive of Rotary." President Emeritus Paul P. Harris said: "Rotary is now recognized as a world asset, as a spiritual dynamo, making for friendliness among men and nations." President Albert Adams said, "When we have made the greatest contribution of modern times to the early coming of that day when all can again join in that greatest song of the ages: "On Earth Peace, God Will Toward Men." I can see a great Congress of Rotary bringing together men from all parts of the world, mingling is friendliness and spirit the flags of every civilized nation of the earth."

A complete copy of McRae's draft of the new constitution and by-laws was sent under date of February 2, 1921, to all Rotary Clubs in the world by the Secretary- General.

Under date of Feb. 22, 1921, the Eleventh Rotary District met at Evansville, Indiana and strenuously objected to McRae's draft and protested against its adoption in the coming international convention which was to be held in Edinburgh in June, 1921, because it did not provide for the government of Rotary by national divisions. Part of the resolution is as follows:

"It is resolved, that we are unalterably opposed to the revised form of Constitution and By-Laws as proposed and submitted by the I.A. of R.C. Committee on Constitution and By-Laws, and we earnestly protest against


Page F. 7


its adoption at the coming International convention.. . ."

"It is Resolved, that believing there is a strong desire and aspiration among Rotarians throughout the United States and in other countries where Rotary is established for the right, as occasion arises to engage in activities that are essentially national, and to devote their energies and their means to functions which, though strictly Rotarian in Character, are limited in their scope to special national conditions, we now urgently recommend that steps be taken to secure the adoption, at the International Convention of 1922, of changes in the Constitution and By-Laws of I. A. of R. C., which will attain the aforesaid purposes; that provision be made for National Divisions in Rotary according to countries, and that such National Divisions constitute the primary governing units in Rotary; that the Rotary Clubs located within the geographical boundaries of each country have direct affiliation with such National Divisions."

Protests were also passed by other District conferences recommending that McRae’s draft be not approved at the Edinburgh convention because of the objection made by the Indiana District conference.

When the International Convention met in Edinburgh and in the recommendation of the Board of Directors, McRae moved that his draft of the new constitution and by-laws should not be considered at the convention, but that a committee of thirty-one should be appointed as an enlarged constitution

(see over)

Page F. 8


and by-laws committee to reconsider and if considered necessary to recommend alterations in his draft at the next international convention.

This committee of thirty-one was composed of outstanding Rotarians from various clubs in the Rotary world and held several meetings under the chairmanship of Samuel B. Botsford and presented a revised constitution and by-laws at the Los Angeles Convention in June, 1922.

This report of the Committee of thirty-one was approved at the Los Angeles Convention. It made very few chances in McRae’s draft of the Constitution and By-laws except that in deference to the resolution of the Indiana District conference, with respect to the administration of Rotary by national divisions, the report recommended that any country which so desired, with the approval of the Board of Directors, might organize a territorial form of administration. Up to the present time the only clubs in any country which have adopted the aforementioned form of administration are the clubs in Great Britain and Northern Ireland and the recently issued report to the Board of Directors by Rotary International Organization and Procedures Committee contains the following comment:

"In its discussion of the territorial unit form of administration, the committee took cognizance of comments of some Rotarians as noted by members of the committee relating to the point of view that the territorial unit form of administration


Page F. 9


should be developed and extended to all parts of the world so that Rotary International ultimately would develop into a rather loosely associated federation of national or regional territorial units. However, the committee was of the opinion that the advancement of international understanding, good will and peace through Rotary requires a general recognition of the vital importance of preserving and promoting, international fellowship of member clubs throughout the world based not upon the grouping of clubs in national or regional areas, but upon the direct, relationship and common responsibility of member clubs to that international organization."

In presenting the report to the Los Angeles Convention Rotarian Botsford stated as follows:-

"As you gentlemen know; the Committee of 31 has during the past year been working upon the object of a proposed new constitution and by-laws for the International Association of Rotary Clubs. Last year a Committee on Constitution and By-Laws reported to the Edinburgh Convention. That Committee was headed by Donald McRae of Halifax, N.S, and at this time I want to pay tribute to the work that they did and to say to you that whatever results have been accomplished this year would probably have been impossible had it not been for the hard work and the highly intelligent work of the committee headed by Donald McRae last year. That committee reported to the Edinburgh Convention that in their judgement the report that they had prepared and had sent out for consideration

(see over)

Page F. 10


should not be adopted and they further urged that a larger committee should be gotten together for the purpose of giving further study to the matter, which resulted in the enactment of a special by-law at the Edinburgh Convention, creating this committee of which I am Chairman and for which I am now reporting."

In the Golden Anniversary of Rotary in the year 1955 the then President of Rotary International, Herbert J. Taylor, under date of January 20, 1955, sent the following letter to Dr. McRae:

"In this Golden Anniversary Year of Rotary, it is only natural that we should pause to think of those Rotarians whose individual contributions have done so much to make the organization what it is today.

This is just a line to let you know that the contribution which you made at the Edinburgh Convention has not been forgotten. Those inspiring words with which you played such an important part in adding to the Object of Rotary, have been changed very little in the intervening years but they started Rotarians on the path which has led to one of Rotary’s greatest achievements - the development of international understanding and good will."

It is interesting to note that it is now recommended by the Rotary International Organization and Procedures Committee, whose report is now before the Board of Directors for consideration, that McRae’s draft of what is now the fourth object of


Page F. 11


Rotary and is commonly called its International Object should be the only object of Rotary and following closely McRae's original draft should be as follows: "The object of Rotary is to develop, encourage and foster understanding, good will, and peaceful relations among people throughout the world, based upon the ideal of Service," and. that the other present objects should be called 'objectives".

McRae reigned from his position at the Law School in Halifax in 1924 and removed to Toronto where until the date of his death in 1957 he was associated with Osgoode Hall Law School.

His removal from Halifax necessitated his automatic resignation from the Halifax Rotary Club and from that date his direct connection with Rotary ceased. During his membership in the Rotary Club in Halifax he acted as District Governor, established a new club at Charlottetown, the capitol city of his native Province of Prince Edward Island, and took an active part in five international conventions, namely: Atlanta in 1917, Kansas City in 1918, Atlantic City in 1920, Edinburgh in 1921 and St. Louis in 1923. At St. Louis he actively supporter resolution 23-34, with respect to community service which resolution has stood the test for nearly forty years.

After his retirement from activities in Rotary McRae became actively interested in the work of the Canadian Bar Association. He was appointed by that Association as a one man commission to inspect and report on the work

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Page F. 12

DONALD McRAE (Cont 'd)

of the Law Schools in Canada and the recommendations contained in his report, which were largely based on the Harvard Plan of the teaching of law, were adopted and have been followed in most of the Law Schools in Canada.

(signed) O. J. Burchell.

Halifax, Nova Scotia,

December 14, 1952."



The Committee on Constitution and By-Laws, having met and considered various suggestions in the form of government of International Rotary, respectfully recommend as follows:

1. That the practice of holding an International Convention annually be continue; that at each International Convention arrangements be made by the Program Committee for separate national assemblies at which matters exclusively national in their scope and character may be separately considered by the Rotarians from each country represented at the Convention.

2. That the governing executive body of the International Association of Rotary Clubs consist of a Board of nine directors to be selected as hereinafter provided.

3. That for the purpose of electing such directors, the territory of Rotary as at present developed, be divided into nine divisions, each of which shall elect one director.


Page F.13


AND BY-LAWS (cont’d)

4. That each such divisions be for the present as follows:-

1. The United Kingdom of Great Britain and Ireland to constitute one division.

2. The Dominion of Canada to constitute one division.

3. Cuba and Porto Rico to constitute one division.

(The U.S. of America to comprise six divisions constituted as follows:)

4. Atlantic Coast Division consisting of Districts 2, 3, 4, 5 and 7.

5. North and South Division consisting of Districts 6, 8, 10 and 13.

6. Northwestern Division consisting of Districts 9 (U.S. clubs), 11 and 12.

7. Southwestern Division consisting of Districts 14, 17 and 18.

8. Middlewestern Division consisting of Districts 15 and 16.

9. Mountain and Pacific Division consisting of Districts 20, 21, 22 (U.S. clubs) and 23.

5.That the Board of Directors be empowered from time to time to redistribute the territory of Rotary as it may be developed and for that purpose to create new divisions.

6. That upon any such change being made, each division shall be entitled to elect one director, and the Board of Directors shall be increased accordingly.

(see over)

Page F. 14


AND BY-LAWS (Cont’d)

7. That the Board be empowered to formulate from time to time the procedure for making such changes in divisions.

8. That except at the election at the 1921 International Convention, Directors be elected to hold office for two years.

9. That at the 1921 International Convention four divisions shall elect Directors to hold office for one year and five divisions shall elect directors to hold office for two years and that prior to the election at the 1921 Convention, lots shall be drawn to determine the four divisions which shall elect directors to hold office for one year.

10. That at or prior to each International Convention nominations for the office of director may be made by clubs in each division entitled to elect a director at that convention.

11. That at each International Convention the voting for directors shall be by divisions, and the delegates from the divisions entitled to elect directors at such convention shall vote for one director from their respective divisions.

12. That the Board of Directors shall meet at such times and places as it may determine, provided that the first meeting of the Board shall in each year be held within five days after the close of the Annual Convention. At such first meeting the General Officers of the Association shall be chosen by the Board.


Page F. 15


AND BY-LAWS (Cont’d)

13. That the General Officers of the Association shall be a President, three Vice-Presidents, Treasurer, Secretary-General, and Sergeant-at-Arms. The President and three Vice-Presidents shall be chosen from the members of the Board. The Treasurer, Secretary-General and Sergeant-at-Arms may be chosen from Rotarians who are not members of the Board.

14. That the administration of International Rotary shall be continued by districts, as at present, with district governors as representatives of the International Association, working under the general supervision of the Board of Directors, and in co-operation with International Headquarters, the creation of divisions being merely for the purpose of electing directors.

15.  That, in addition to International Headquarters, the Board be empowered to establish and maintain a branch office in any country to facilitate the administration and promote the interest of Rotary in such country.

16. That there shall be an International Council, composed of the Directors, General Officers, District Governors, and Chairman of standing committees, which shall meet within ninety days after the chose of each International Convention, for purposes of conference and planning co-operatively, the work and activities of the Association and its member clubs for the current year.

(see over)

Page F. 16


AND BY-LAWS (Cont’d)

17. That the Board have authority to publish in each country, where the circumstances

and the best interests of Rotary require it, an official publication, for the use and benefit of Rotarians in such country, and that these publications should be so edited and adapted as to meet the requirements of the Rotary clubs therein. That extensive exchange of Rotary material for publication be maintained between such publications, so that all Rotarians may be kept in close touch with the activities and development of Rotary throughout the world.

WILLARD I. LANSING, Providence, R.I., Chairman

ESTES SNEDECOR, Portland, Oregon.

CHARLES J. BURCHELL, Halifax, Canada.

ALEXANDER WILKIE, Edinburgh, Scotland.


Page G. 1

Editor’s Note [Not in Original]: When Joe Caulder put together his Information Volumes, he generally used both sides of a page. In the case of the following speech of Tom Davis, he apparently first used one-side of each page for Davis' speech and then later went back and added other material to the reverse side of the page. When he numbered the pages, however, he numbered them consecutively and thus the Tom Davis speech, "Rotary at Work", bears odd numbered pages and distinctly different material is on the reverse sides even numbered pages. So that reading the material will be easier, I have put the odd numbered pages together, to be followed by the even–numbered pages.)


(Address by the late Past President of Rotary International, TOM J. DAVIS, of Butte, Montana, at the New York Convention June 1949. Tom Davis was President of R.I. for the year 1941-42 and presided at the Toronto Convention in June 1942. Tom was one of the great R.I. Presidents. A top-notch lawyer of Butte, and a great citizen of the U.S.A. I had the honour of serving with Tom as District Governor in 1921-22 and we were close friends until his untimely passing on October 22nd, 1953. - J.A.CAULDER)

I think you must understand the trepidation which I feel as I was given this very fine opportunity to talk with you, my Fellow Rotarians, about a subject in. which we all have a very keen interest.

I was talking with Porter Carswell, as "Buzz" was presenting me, and he told me that a group of very beautiful and altogether charming and very talented young women will follow my talk. My observation was it was rather too bad to have a wind instrument precede these lovely and musical girls.

Yesterday I had lunch with a group of men who are my very close friends. They are men who have served Rotary in the past with a great deal of distinction. They are men who know very much about Rotary. They are men who constantly give of their time and their energy in order to see that Rotary continues at work.

( cont’d page G. 3)

Page G. 3


In this group at luncheon there was a very distinguished American, a man who has had the great privilege of going into many parts of the world and there serving his country. He has called important conferences in connection with food distribution and food production, and, as he told us most interestingly of his travels, particularly into three great countries of the world, he said that, when he had completed the official business which had taken him to that country, in talking with one of the outstanding men of the country where he happened to be, he said, "Now lot's talk a little bit about Rotary." To his amazement, not one of the three men in these three countries knew of our ideals, nor the purposes which we had in our minds, and, certainly, they were not acquainted with the work, which we were trying to do.

To this man who has given very much of his time and energy to Rotary, this statement was rather a disappointment.

I am wondering how many distinguished men in different parts of the world have failed to learn of the significance of Rotary and of the important influence of Rotary in more than 80 geographical units of the world. I am wondering if the time has not come when we must change some of our ideas about our relationship with other organizations, and I am wondering if the time has not come for us to give some real consideration to the great possibility of Rotary as we relate ourselves to existing organizations and agencies which have in their programs

(Cont’d Page C. 5)

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things in common with us, things which we hope to accomplish.

I was thinking, too, as I made a resume of the work of Rotary International, work with which I have been rather familiar, if the time has not come for us to give some consideration to the so-called controversial issues in our Clubs and particularly those things which are controversial in the communities where we live.

It is not my thought that Rotary as an organization should concern itself with controversial things and make a decision as to the rightness or the wrongness of those things. But it is my thought that, as an educational process, Rotary should inform the individual Rotarian about these controversial things, and then permit the individual Rotarian to reach his own conclusion as to what might be right or wrong in connection with the issue which is involved.

I believe that the intelligent, well-informed group of men who fill the classifications of Rotary should be unafraid of controversy, because, in the next decade or two, it is very definitely possible that we shall be constantly confronted with things which are controversial, things in which Rotary may very well have a place of leadership, things which Rotary might very well help the world decide.

(Cont'd. page G7)

Page G. 7


If Rotary should undertake such a program as that, is seems to me it would make a fundamental contribution to better understanding in every part of the world.

So you men of Rotary, in connection with controversial issues, should be one of the very first groups, in my opinion, to so inform yourselves that you will be able to talk about, to discuss with those with whom you come into contact, these things about which we know so little, and, so often, seem to prefer to ignore.

I wish to call another thing to your attention and, as I do, I wish you to believe me very sincere when I say I am not in any sense talking politics, but I wish to challenge the attention of all of you Rotarians, regardless of the place from which you may come, to concern yourselves with the problems of government in your nation, because it is very definitely a part of the work and of the ideals of Rotary.

An enlightened citizenship is a great asset of any country and, as President Angus so splendidly said last night, an enlightened, informed public interest will help rule the destiny of the world.

Today I call your attention to a thing which, to me, was rather tragic. In the last elections held in my country, fewer than 50 per cent of those who were eligible to vote were willing to take

(Cont'd. page G 9)

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the time to cast their ballot in helping to determine who, for the next four years, would be the President of the great United States.

They refused to give the time or the energy which it would have taken to go to the polls in order to assist in selecting the man who would fill, in my opinion, the most important place of leadership in the world, the man who would fill a place of leadership which might very well determine the pathway over which civilization will pass for the next five or ten decades.

And I say again that it is time for Rotarians to concern themselves with the kind of government which they will have. And I very quickly say I am not concerned with how you vote, but I am tremendously interested in this group of men who belong to Rotary taking a sufficient interest in and participating in and securing for their nations the kind of government which will be good government, and which will permit us to participate in worldwide activities, which, in the last analysis, will cause this world to be a better place in which to live.

Now, Rotary is in the very front lines of the great battle for worldwide friendship and better understanding. Rotary frequently overturns the kind of logic which is so prevalent today, the logic of facts. Rotary hails the logic of thought, the logic of good will. Rotary believes in the logic of friendship in action.

(Cont'd' page G l1)

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That this position is sound is proved by the remarkable progress of Rotary and by the great accomplishments of Rotary in more than eighty geographical units of the world.

Today, in this great and brilliant meeting, Rotary demonstrates the power of the forum of Rotary, a forum to which is called the outstanding men, the finest brains, and the very best characters, a forum in which men of all classes participate, a forum to which the whole world listens.

The forum of Rotary, nonpartisan in character, without prejudice in its presentations, and without attempting to share the form or idea of utterance, presents the most effective platform in the whole world; a platform from which come expressions and thoughts of men determined to make a better world; a sounding board which echoes around the world.

The forum of Rotary is a provider of information, a distributor of sound knowledge, a disseminator of friendship and good will. But Rotarians know that knowledge is not enough. Knowledge is a neutral thing.

In the hands of men of good will and of friendship, knowledge is used for the purpose of building a better world, but knowledge in the hands of men of avarice and of greed frequently is used for sinister purposes, for purposes which tend to disrupt and to wreck the happiness and the understanding of the world.

(Cont’d. Page G 13)

Page G.13


So, the forum of Rotary must be and is based upon different points of view, honestly expressed, and with the idea of helping those, regardless of class, of creed, or of color, who listen.

This information, given out from the forum of Rotary, reaches countless thousands, among whom are 330,000 professional and business men, in 6,800 Clubs and in 81 geographical units of the world, who call themselves Rotarians.

Rotary has the distinct opportunity to develop an informed public opinion in the communities where it exists. It seems perfectly obvious that an informed public opinion, based upon factual knowledge, is much to be preferred to public opinion based upon misinformation, prejudice, or ignorance.

Rotary is international and intensely cosmopolitan. Rotary recognizes that no nation, no individual, has a monopoly upon the goodness of things; that no nation, no individual, has a monopoly upon the best ideas, the best traditions and the best ideas of right living.

Rotary very often finds the best expression of its genius in the smaller cities and towns. The fact is that more than 40 per cent of the Rotary Clubs in the United States are located in communities which have a population of 5,000 or less.

Napoleon was once supposed to have spoken disparagingly of a great Country as "a nation of shopkeepers." This title could be claimed

(Cont’d page G 15

Page G. 15


and would be claimed with great satisfaction by the people of my country.

The backbone of local American communities is their small business men. With such independent men, engaged in small businesses, we have our best demonstration of American free enterprise in action. Retailers are, by far, the more numerous, closely followed the service trades, and then our professional people.

Big business is necessary, but it is a most reassuring thing that, when business grows big, small enterprise grows alongside and, in a large measure, keeps pace or often leads the way.

All these "united in the ideal of service" form the Rotary team, which builds better men, and maintains better places in which to live.

Rotary communities are better communities because the men of Rotary are in them. The chief interest un making a community a better place must come from those it.

Location, industries, payrolls, organizations are necessary to build better communities, but organizations are not the most important thing. Men build communities - - men of vision, men of ambition, men of character, men of Rotary.

So, platitudinous as it may seem, the work of Rotary is reflected in 6,800 communities as Rotary tries to make those

(Cont’d. page G. 17)

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communities better places in which to live.

We have done a job, which I think is significant, in connection with the building of higher ethical standards in our professions and our business. We have been able to teach thousands of Rotarians that the rules of business and the professions are clear and well defined, and that a man who plays outside those rules will surely lose. And the contribution which we make to the building of better standards is a most significant thing because it works in your lifer and in mine.

There has never been a time, in my opinion, when that energy, that urge was more needed than now. Certainly, that is true in the United States.

We go back in our thinking to the days of Guy Gundaker when he did that great thing in relation to the writing of codes. But today there seems to be more of an individual need as the Vocational Service program tries to relate itself to our customers, to our customers, to our competitors, and to the conduct of our business generally.

In the office of a very ordinary lawyer in Montana, there have come to his attention in the last five months the following cases: A young man, the son of an outstanding family, a man whose father had been the manager of a great organization. That boy has embezzled from his friends and from his firm the sum of $5,400 in the last five or six months. His problem was drinking.

(Cont’d, Page G19)

Page G. 19


Another man who filled an important piece with a great bank for a period of five or six years has been systematically embezzling and robbing the bank and the depositors of their money. His problem was Chinese lotteries.

A third man, holding a most responsible position, has been systematically taking money which belonged to one of the great organizations in the United States, and it amounts possibly to ten or fifteen thousand dollars.

Of these three men, at least two will go to the penitentiary. Their lives have been disgraced. These men have been humiliated, but the significant thing is that each one of these men was employed by a Rotary organization.

I am wondering if we, who are employers, are taking the time and spending the energy which we should spend in order to inculcate our employees with the spirit and with the ideals of Rotary. It is an important thing, a thing which we should not neglect.

Just recently in another community the pilferage, the shoplifting, has been so great as to take two cents out of every dollar of the stock placed upon the shelves in a certain group of stores.

We placed operators in charge of this problem and arrested 21 thieves in one store in approximately three hours.

Again, the significant thing is that this

(Cont’d. page G21)

Page G. 21


organization was a Rotary organization. What are we doing or failing to do that would build a better understanding, a better relationship between these people who are our customers and who are coming into our stores for the purpose of patronizing us?

Then I saw in a Rotary bulletin a short time ago a most amazing statement. It said that 26 years ago a group of men met in one of the great cities of the United States. One man was the head of a great steel company; one man was the outstanding financier of Europe; one man was the head of a great utility empire. And so it enumerated the 11 or 12 men, .including one who was a member of the Cabinet of the United. States.

Then they made an analysis of what had become of those great leaders, tycoons who had been held out as examples to the youth of the United States as being men expert in the accumulation of money. And at the end of 26 years, the great steel man had died insolvent, after having on borrowed money for five years; the great financier from Europe had jumped out of an airplane; a very wealthy, successful man in the United States had committed suicide. The president of a great stock exchange had been sent to the penitentiary for things that he had done. And, finally, it was climaxed by the member of the Cabinet of the United States government returning home to die after having been pardoned from the penitentiary in which he bad served.

(Cont’d. page G23)

Page G. 23


I wonder what there is wrong with the structure of our business, of our great financial leadership, that would cause men in these responsible places to fail.

These things, isolated, I admit, are things which cause me to believe that there is a great job to be done by you men of Rotary in relation to your ordinary classifications, in the work which you do in order to cause your communities to be better places in which to live.

I want to speak very briefly of the work done in communities. Perhaps lacking somewhat in modesty, I think of a great privilege which has come to me as I have gone from one end of the world to the other, and as I have seen the unselfish demonstration of the work of Rotary in these many places where I have been.

I have stood with Tom Warren in England, in a great children’s camp. I have gone down into Latin America as we dedicated a great playfield and started the construction of a huge hospital for crippled children.

I have seen the great educational work that is being done in Portugal because of the activities of Rotary. And today, if I could call the roll of every club represented in this great meeting, every one of you could tell a similar story if having contributed unselfishly to the building of your communities and, to again repeat the almost trite expression, the effort which you have made in order to cause your communities to the better places in which to live.

(Cont’d. page G25)

Page G. 25


Finally, I want to bring out of my own background - - and I am sure you will forgive me for having been so personal - -and call to your attention some things which have been done in the work of Rotary in behalf of the program which will cause better understanding and greater friendliness to exist between the peoples of the world.

I remember one day I was in Chicago presiding over a Rotary meeting. Phil Lovejoy came to me and said, "Tom, they wish you at the telephone."

So I answered the telephone, and, as I did, a very lovely voice came, a deep, resonant, bass voice, and he said, "Is this President Tom Davis of Rotary International?"

I said, "Yes."

He said- "Do you wish to serve your country?"

I said, "Who questions that?"

He said, "This is the Office of the President of the United States speaking."

He then told me the amazing story of the situation which existed at that time between China and our country and the other countries interested in our understanding of liberty and of freedom.

(Cont'd. page G27)

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Distinguished American officials had made speeches which were considered to be indiscreet. They had said that, "When we have finished with Germany, then we will go into the Orient and we will do what we can to help in that situation."

The enemies of Chiang Kai-shek had taken hold of this idea and were making it so difficult for him that he had asked the United States government to assist.

This man who talked with me was the son of one of my professors when I was a student at the University of Michigan, and he wanted to know what could be done.

I said if they would permit me to talk with the Secretary and to discuss the matter with my Board, I would report. So, I went back to the Board and told them what had been said.

Phil said, "We can immediately organize some China aid meetings."

Again this man from the President’s office called me on the telephone. I told him what we could plan to do, and he asked how quickly it could be done,

I said, "We can have the notices of these meetings in the mail, within three days."

He said, "I don't believe it."

"Well," I said, "we will try."

(Cont'd. Page G29)

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I returned to the Board and got the consent of the American members of the Board, Arthur FitzGerald said, "President Tom, Canada will go along."

It is not necessary for me to recount the things which Rotary was able to do in relation to that matter, Eleven hundred meetings were held in all parts of North America, broadcasts were made from one end of the world to the others; speeches were made by a great many men interested in trying to build a better world.

Finally, Dr. Hu Shih, who was the Ambassador from China to the United States, came all the way to Butte, Montana, to thank the President of Rotary International for the thing which we had tried to do in connection with that difficult problem.

And Upton Close, in his broadcast the following Sunday said - - and I know you will forgive me repeating it: "Thank God for Rotary International and for President Tom Davis. They have done the only intelligent thing thus far done in behalf of our Oriental situation."

I think of another thing. There had been a dispute, a boundary dispute, going on between Peru and Ecuador for one hundred and fifty years. They had fought three dreadful wars in relation to that problem.

Finally, with the consent of the President of Peru and the President of Ecuador,

(Cont’d. page G 31)

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Rotary tried to organize a plan which would help in that difficult situation.

Ches. Perry went with me to see Mr. Cordell Hull and, as we presented the matter to him, he said, "President Davis, rot only may you say that you have the consent of your government, but you will have the complete co-operation of your government in relation to this matter."

So, we names Joaquin Serratosa Cibils of Montevideo, Uruguay, we named Cesar Andrade, the former Finance Minister of Ecuador. We named Andre Dasso, a Senator from Lima, Peru. These men went to the home of Joaquin Serratosa Cibils, and there for four and one-half days they sat down and worked out a formula under which and by virtue of which this dispute could be settled.

The last item on the agenda at the great meeting of Rio called by President Roosevelt was the settlement of this boundary dispute which had lasted l50 years, in the almost identical terms of the formula prepared by these five splendid Rotarians.

And when I say this to you, when I tell you of the work of Rotary in connection with international problems, I say to you that, in my thinking, Rotary has become a tremendously important, a really significant organization in helping toward the solution of problems which very often disturb the happiness and the peace of the world.

(Cont'd. page G33)

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So you men who try earnestly and sincerely to build a better world, are making a contribution which cannot be underestimated, because you are the ones who will help, in the last analysis, to determine whether or not the U.N. will work, whether we shall continue to spend our money for war or whether we shall spend it for living.

And it does not cause me any great trouble to conclude in my own thinking that it is very much better for us to live, and to live intelligently, with our neighbors, than for us to spend it on a spree which will result only in death and destruction.

I should like to close with a statement which I have made many times, that through out my life I have lived through three dreadful wars. I have seen men come home with their arms gone, with their eyes gone, with their legs gone, after they have given all they were and all they hoped to be in order to maintain freedom and happiness and liberty for you and me, things which have become almost commonplace in your life and in mine.

You men and you women are too intelligent to be compelled to resort to such a procedure. So, as Rotary tries to cause us to better understand the persons with whom we

(cont'd. page G35)

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come into contact, and to be friendly with them, then Rotary is making a real, a genuine contribution.

War today is the most stupid, the most wicked, the most futile thing in all the world. Although Rotary has repeatedly said it is opposed to war, the time has come, in my thinking, when we should do something about the prevention of war.

So, as we support the U.N., as we try to build this understanding between the peoples of the world, we make a fundamental contribution, a contribution that will result in your happiness and in mine.

One day I was on a train going from London up to a Newcastle-upon-Tyne. Suddenly the train slowed down, and we could not understand why that had taken place, but, when we got into this beautiful city, we understood. The places which had been the homes of these people in this lovely spot were blown to bits. There were piles of brick and mortar in what had been the streets. The gas mains were shooting fountains of water fifteen or twenty feet high, and the poor, dazed dumb people were parading through these piles of rubble and, with their fingers, trying to find anything of value they could find.

I watched a very elderly lady whose back was turned to me, and I said to her,

(Cont'd. page G37)

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"Things are rather badly off this morning."

She turned and, for the first time, I saw the ghastliness of her face. It was beaten to a pulp. Her lips were so swollen that she could hardly speak. Then she told me in detail how the bombers had gone over, how they had blown these things all apart, and how the bricks had struck her in the face, and how only through the providence of God she had escaped with her life.

Then she said, "It wasn’t the bombings, though, sir. It was the awful machine-gunning afterwards. The men who had run those planes had returned to spray these people with machine-guns."

Beyond where she stood, there was a girl about eighteen. Her eyes were red from weeping. They had taken the father’s body out of their home. Beyond where the girl stood was a man whom you could never forget if you lived to be a thousand years. His face had all the appearance of a human skull, eyes deeply sunken, the skin pulled over the bones of his face, and yet, as that man stood there, he seemed to be completely unafraid. He had returned from his work looking for his wife and for his family, and they had told him she had gone to a Catholic Church center to which they belonged. He said she could not have gone to the church because, if she had, she would have been home long before that.

(Cont’d. page C39)

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Then he stood by while the man with picks and shovels first took out the body of a once beautiful woman, broken, bloody and battered; an eighteen year old girl, his daughter; his sixteen year old son, and, finally, the eight year old curly-headed daughter.

Across the street from where that man stood a great factory had been blown to buts, and the man who owned that factory, within a half hour, had taken a placard he had written the word, "Cheerio!" Then he put the pictures of his King and Queen, and then he had written these words, "One day nearer victory."

And I say to you again, with all the earnestness that I can muster, the time is coming when we may be called upon to give a little of ourselves if we are to maintain these ideals, these liberties, and these freedoms which I said a moment ago have become almost commonplaces in your life and in mine.

Thirty years ago, as a young man, I was sent in my uniform from Camp Lewis to New York. I went up to the fortieth floor of the Bankers Building, which w3as very close to the water’s edge. Suddenly we were terrified, just frozen with fear. They told us that a submarine had come close to the Harbor of New York, and that it was going to blast this great city and would kill the non-combatants who had no part in the war. We thought what a

(Cont’d. Page G41

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Bestial, what a terrible thing it was!

Then I move on twenty-five years, and an atomic bomb destroyed a whole city and killed or wounded 80,000 men, women and children, and very little was said about it.

I may to you today that Rotarians must consecrate themselves to better understanding and to better friendship, in order that that thing will not happen again.

Civilization, twenty-five of them, have been destroyed. All of them have contributed to the civilization in which we live today. I should like to warn you men that civilizations are not destroyed from without; civilizations are destroyed from within. If ever this priceless heritage of ours is taken from us, it will be because of your apathy, your unwillingness to serve, your lack of information.

So, my last word is to beg of you, my fellow Rotarians, to inform yourselves and to again rededicate yourselves to the principles and the ideals of Paul Harris, and to be willing to do the things that we as individuals are able to do in order to make this a better world.

May I close with a prayer which I have used in every speech I have made for two and one-half years because it says so wonderfully well, in just a few stanzas, the things which I have so ramblingly said for thirty-three or thirty-four minutes:

(Cont’d. Page G43)

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Each day I pray God to give me strength anew,

To do the tasks I do not wish to do;

Yielding obedience, not asking why,

To learn and hold the truth and scorn the lie;

To look a bold world in the face,

To cheer for those who pass me in the race,

To bear my burdens daily, unafraid,

To lend a helping hand to those who need my aide.

To measure what I am by what I did;

God give me strength that I may richly live.

That is the challenge; that is the responsibility; that is the possibility. It is the responsibility of you men who are my fellow Rotarian. Rotary at work has a great responsibility and Rotary will not fail.


Toronto was host to the R.I. Convention in 1924 and made a name for the city and the club that is still talked about. Jim Davidson was a hand with his wife Lilliam and daughter Marjory. Jim, along with J. L. Ralston, and in 1921 organized in New Zealand and Australia and had done a great job. I had served as Governor of District 19 (Ft. William to Edmonston) in 11821-22. One of my great President was Jim Horn, C.P.R. Supt, at Kenora, Ont. Jim had 17 consecutive 100% meetings so was called 100% Jim. The conference opened on Monday and I got a wire from Jim which read, "As shipping you a bear tonight". I assumed it was a joke so handed the wire to three bankers who were close by. They were Ken Reekie, Bank of Commerce, Lethbridge, Reg


Page G. 44


McCaul, Bank of Commerce, Swift Current; and Bill Radcliffe, Dominion Bank, Regina and I said, "I appoint you three men the Bear Committee". That afternoon my three bankers paraded a three months old cub on a nice long chain.

All sessions were held at the C.N.E. By Wednesday evening the bankers were fed up with the bear and something had to be done. They were paying a bell boy at the King Edward to care and feed the bear and were missing all the Convention sessions, Something had to be done so they bribed a bell boy to get them a key to Davidsons’ suite. The ball was held on Wednesday evening and after it was well underway the three bankers turned the bear loose in the swanky Davidson suite, Jim, Lillian and Marjory arrived at their suite at 3 A.M., very happy but very tied. They found the bear and fortunately for all concerned no damaged had been done. Once more a bell boy, looking innocent, had to take the bear to the basement and put him to bed. But the bankers the revolted on the job Thursday A.M. as it was the final day. Guy Gundaker, the presiding President, was nearing the end of a very successful year and no incident had marred the first three days, so he was happy. Then about 10:30 A.M. a member stood up and asked to be heard. He made a great speech extolling the R.I. President and then took the bear from the bankers and presented it to President Guy. The President accepted the gift and then proceeded to thank the donor when the bear’s jaws ruined the starched shirt front of the immaculate Guy. He made a grand speech of thanks and then in flowery language proceeded to present the gift to the popular Jim Davidson. Jim accepted of course and in another fine speech

(cont’d. Page 45)

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he presented the bear to Hutch who was the Secretary of the Rotary Club of Auckland, New Zealand. Hutch was equal to the occasion and holding the bear under his right arm he thanked Jim and announced that the bear would return with him to Auckland and would be named "Rotary Jim." The Australian boys liked the idea so the following December they shipped two young Kangaroo to Jim Davidson at Calgary. They arrived when it was 40° below zero. Jim gave them to the Zoo where one died in a few months and the other lived for some years. In the meantime Rotary Jim grew to weigh 800 pounds and became the very special pet of Auckland children. Rotary Jim died about 12 years later and thousands of Auckland children had a school holiday and followed Rotary

Jim to the animal burial ground. About 1957 or 1958 the Olympic games were held in Australia and Ex. President Guy Gundaker asked me to get him a small bear to take to Auckland (1500 miles from Australia) to replace Rotary Jim. Dr. Norman Scollard of our Toronto Zoo found a fine cub in April but Guy was sailing in October, and the bear would grow. Nothing daunted Ex. President Guy. However, illness prevented him making the trip and Norman likely still has the bear. Only recently I learned that Walter Peace, son of the Founder President of the Toronto club, then a boy, earned 75 cents for parading the bear around the C.N.E. grounds when the bankers played hookey. Plenty of fun in Rotary in the early days.


Page G. 2


By - Walter W. Peace

From - The Voice - Toronto Club - Nov. 22, 1962.

My father used to say that it took him two years to do one year’s work. He was Charter President of the Rotary club of Toronto from November 1912 to December 1914, although, according to the by-laws, officers may hold office for only one year.

William A. Peace was devoted to Rotary. He attended all the International Conventions up to and including New York in 1952. Perhaps the most important of these for him was that held at Buffalo in 1913. There he was appointed Area Vice-President of the International Association of Rotary Clubs, with responsibility for all of Canada East of Manitoba. He had the task of organizing new clubs in that vast territory.

When he retired from active business in 1950, his church, Rotary and his family of nine with thirty grandchildren, became his main interest. He attended every district conference and special meeting of the Rotary Club of Toronto even when in failing health. Father was stricken when attending a Rotary meeting in Toronto in 1959, and died in Lindsay Memorial Hospital, August 21st, 1961.

Bill Peace was an honorary member of the many clubs he helped to organize, but the Toronto Club was always closest to his heart - - it was his baby. On its fiftieth birthday the child will remember its father, he would have liked that.

Page G. 4

I’d rather see a sermon

Than Hear one any day

I’d rather one should walk with me

Than merely show the way.

The eye’s a better pupil

and more willing than the ear;
Fine counseling is confusing,
But example is always clear.

I can learn just how you do it

If you let me see it done;

I can watch your hands in action
But your tongue too fast may run.

And the lectures you deliver

May be very wise and true;
But I'd rather get my lesson
By observing what you do.

For I may misunderstand you

And the high advice you give

But there's no misunderstanding

How you act and how you live.


Page G. 6


From – Bulletin - the Rotary Club of Selinsgrove, Pennsylvania, U.S.A.

Too busy, friend? That's mostly stall,

You can’t get by with that at all.

If you can’t find the time to do

That Rotary job assigned to you,

Then brother, quit right now. Resign,

Or else lay off that doleful whine,

I’m too busy."



By – Paul P. Harris, in "This Rotarian Age".

"As white corpuscles defend the human bloodstream against the ravages of disease, so the constructive forces of co-operation, tolerance, courage, and brotherly love will eventually overcome selfishness, envy, intolerance, hatred, and fear - - the most destructive enemies of the social order."



From – Rotary - The Rotary Club of Albany, Georgia, U.S.A.

Rotary is the oldest movement of its kind in the world, and the most extended in its work. This fact adds a certain dignity to Rotary which other similar organizations can never attain.

Rotary means something big in the world. It should mean something big in the life of the individual who belongs.

Page G. 8


"From - Rotary Voice, Nov. 22, 1962.


"Tales that have the time of Age"
Do not now our pen engage;
Nor have we the space to tell
Names of those who served us well.

Rotary in nineteen twelve

Cast O’er them its potent spell;
Worthily they played their part
Men of vision and of heart.

Step by Step they paved the way

To the Club we have today;

And though some have passed from view,

We that upward path pursue.

Each succeeding year proclaims

How far-seeing were their aims,

Placing service in the van
To complete what faith began.
In that goodly company,
Each his own true self could be,
And a friendly spirit show
Toward the men he came to know.

Every one would do his best

To observe the "FOUR-WAY TEST";

Give his talent and his time,

Helping other men to climb.

In the things that have been done,

In wise projects here begun,

In our fellowship and fun,
Marching with the morning sun,
Golden is the goal we've won!

Kindling fresh the spark within,

Ventures new we now begin.

Page G. 10


From - Sunshine Magazine

If I can throw a single ray of light across the darkened pathway of another; if I can aid some soul to clearer sight of life and duty, and thus bless my brother; if I can wipe from any human cheek a tear, I shall not then have lived in vain while here.

If I can guide some erring one to truth, inspire within his heart a sense of duty; if I can plant within the soul of rosy youth a sense of right, a love of truth and beauty; if I can teach one man that God and Heaven are near, I shall not then have lived in vain while here.

If from my mind I banish doubt and fear, and keep my life attuned to love and kindness; if I can scatter light and hope and cheer, and help remove the curse of mental blindness; if I can make more joy, more hope, less pain, I shall not have lived and loved in vain.

If by life’s roadside I can plant a tree beneath whose shade some wearied head may rests though I may never share its shade, or see its beauty, I shall .yet be truly blest - - though no one knows my name, nor mourns upon my bier, I shall not then have lived in vain while here.



If a man should ask you what he can get out of Rotary, tell him this: "High on the side of a mountain in Scotland there is said to be an inn and over the door a sign with these words: ‘In this inn you will find joy and good company- - provided you bring them with you.’"

Page G. 12


Author Unknown

From: Frank J. LoSasso – Past Governor

District 785 - Barre, Vermont, U.S.A.


Is anybody happier because you passed his way?

Does anyone remember that you spoke to him today?

This day is almost over, it’s toiling time is through;

Is there anyone to utter now a kindly word of you?

Can you say tonight, in parting with day that’s slipping fast,

That you helped a single fellow of the many that you passed?

Is a single heart rejoicing over what you did or said?

Does a man whose hopes are fading, now with courage look ahead?

Did you waste a day or lose it, was it well or poorly spent?

Did you leave a trail of kindness or a scar of discontent,

As you close your eyes in slumber, do you think that God would say

You have earned one more tomorrow by the work you did today?

Page G. 14


Provided by: Frank J. LoSassos Barre, Vt.,

Past Gov. Dist. 785, 1959-1960

The Hindu: "The true rule is to guard and do by the things of others as you do by your Own."

The Buddhist: "One should seek for others the happiness one desires for oneself."

The Zoroastrian: "Do as you would be done by."

The Confucian: "What you do not wish done to yourself, do not to others."

The Mohammedan: "Let none of you treat your brother in a way he himself would dislike to be treated."

The Jew: "Whatsoever you do not wish your neighbor to do to you, do not unto him."

The Christian: "All things whatsoever ye would that men should do unto you, do ye even  so to them."

Rotary: "Service Above Self."

Page G. 16


New members of the Rotary Club of Montauban, France, are given a copy of the Manual of Procedure when they are admitted. The following month they are asked to speak on the subject, "Why I agreed to Become a Rotarian" . . . Members of the Rotary Club of Grand Forks,_North Dakota; U.S.A., devoted an entire program to the club’s constitution and by-laws, discussing proposed amendments to the by-laws.

Comment. "We need to do this more often in order to really be up to date on our Rotary."

38 new members attended a special "educational meeting" of the Rotary Club of Portland, Oregon, U.S.A.

Jan. 1963


"The Teller" - Rotary Club of Chillicothe, Ohio, U.S.A, Feb. 1963

"You can’t make a Rotarian by giving a man a Rotary button, but after he receives his button you can help teach him Rotary.

A man in Rotary is one thing; Rotary in a man is something else,"

Page G. 18



R.I. NEWS - Oct. 1962

The Rotary Clubs of Kenilworth and Roselle-Reselle Park, New Jersey, U.S.A. have joined forces to build a hospital-clinic in Tagum, Mindanao, Republic of the Philippines.

To-date, the two clubs have contributed a full set of building plans; 60 beds, wheeled stretchers, and similar equipment; building materials; cash; a cement mixer; a promise of free drugs from pharmaceutical firms; and free ocean transport of materials to the Philippines.

In El Salvador, the Rotary Club of Santa Ana is planning to establish a school for illiterates. Also in El Salvador, four schools received books, paper, chalkboards, pencils, and similar teaching materials from the Rotary Club of Indianapolis, Indiana, U.S.A., after a member made these needs known to the club following a visit to El Salvador.

The Rotary Club of Anand, India, has a program of supplying teaching materials to schools, but still retorts a great need for additional materials.

One club reported its "eyes were opened" to the illiteracy situation in its own community by the investigation it made in replying to the questionnaire.

A second club said, "No initiative up to the present on the part of Rotarians, but now our club is planning to take action within the framework of the national literacy plan." A third club developed plans for night schools for adults in different parts of the city.

Page G. 20



From R.I. NEWS - October l962

A beautiful granite drinking fountain, donated by the Rotary Club of Tokyo, Japan, in commemorating of the 1961 convention, has been unveiled in a corner of the Imperial Palace Plaza in Tokyo.

Constructed of India granite from Gifu Prefecture, in a simple, dignified design, the fountain stands beneath a stately pine tree with the palace and a cluster of modern buildings in the background.

The unveiling ceremony, at which some 50 club members and palace dignitaries were present, and which received newspaper and television coverage, culminated a three-year community service project for the Rotary club of Tokyo.

The Rotary emblem and commemorative line are carved into the fountain’s base, and thousands of palace visitors annually for many years to come will have an opportunity to view the club’s beautiful gift to the city.

Page G. 22


From: R. I. NEWS - October 1962.

One amendment adopted by the convention concerns a special privilege granted to certain past service members. Article V, Section 10 (a) of the standard club constitution now reads:-

"He must reside and continue to reside within the territorial limits of this club or within the surrounding area, unless he has been an active member in this club in which event he may reside and continue to reside in the locality of his residence at the time he ceased to be an active member in this club."

Another permits members to make up attendance at the regular weekly meetings of a provisional Rotary club.

A provisional Rotary club is an organizing group composed of at least twenty-five members, whose formal application for membership in R.I. has been received and acknowledged by the secretariat of R.I., but which has not been admitted to membership in R.I.

Page G. 24


From: R. I. NEWS - October 1962.

"A good Rotary club is like anything else; it must continue to grow or it will die," noted the editor of The Gear, bulletin of the Rotary Club of Seymour, Indiana, U.S.A.

"It's not that I'm tired of the old familiar faces at Rotary, but our Rotary club should be growing with our city, and our club has not been keeping pace with the growth of the community the past few years."

Rotary clubs world wide might well heed this editor's plea, and "kindle the spark within, which lights the path to service - within your communities" as urged by President Nitish C. Laharry.

Has your club's classifications committee made a roster of filled and unfilled classifications recently? If so, eligible men should be brought into the club regularly to fill the vacancies.

In this connection, your club might wish to review papers 52, "Should we 'Sell' Rotary?" and 354, "Building Rotary Club Membership," copies of which are available gratis from the secretariat.

Page G. 26




MAY 4th, 1963

By: J. D. (Dave) Kennedy – Past Dist. Governor, Guelph, Ontario

"Nearly a year ago now Governor Harold and I first talked of my coming to be with you at this Conference. In our discussion at that time the subject of New Members came up, and it is to you the New Members of the Clubs of District 709 that I wish to address my remarks especially this morning. I hope there will be something of interest to you older members as well.

At a Charter Night just over a year ago in our District, Past President of R.I., Clifford Randall gave a truly inspiring talk. He used as his theme "The Beginning" which certainly was most appropriate for such an occasion. You new members are in much the same position as the Rotary Club of Markham was at the time of their Charter presentation.

The bell has just sounded, the starting gate is open. Now, where are you going to go, how fast, and how far, in this new phase of your life called Rotary? You haven’t really gotten started and already the cross-roads are upon you. You’re going to have to make decisions.

I hope that each of you has been thoroughly indoctrinated already by your fellow Rotarians, as to your responsibilities as Rotarians and club members.

There is much to learn, and it needs to be

(cont’d. P. G 28)

Page G. 28


Learned, if you are going to make power decisions about you and Rotary. Before you can chart your own personal course in Rotary you need information. You will need an historical background of Rotary in general and your club in particular. You’ll need to know how Rotary is organized and how your club is set up to operate. The rules are important, particularly for new members, but no less so really, for we older members too. Above all you have to know what Rotary is trying to do – its "object". The organization and rules have been developed from the experience over many years, of thousands of Rotarians and are designed to facilitate the smooth operation of a club which never loses sight of our "Object".

There is nothing better than a good Rotary Information or New Members Committee to help you find out what makes Rotary tick. There are many books and pamphlets covering particular phases of Rotary, and meetings such as this Conference, your District Institute, and the International Conventions which will broaden your horizons in Rotary.

At the International Convention in Atlantic City in 1951, Arthur Lagueux of Quebec city, the last Canadian to be President of R.I., gave a very thought-provoking address by asking and answering some questions.

"What kind of men do we want in Rotary?

We are not an exclusive group. We do not set up artificial barriers. We simply seek to attract good-hearting men."

(Cont’d. P. G. 30)

Page G. 30


Yes Rotary wants good men. If there is anything exclusive about Rotary it derives from its basic reason for being: Its dedication to the concept of each Rotarian doing something for, or being of help to, somebody else. We are not a mutual aid society. We want the kind-hearted friendly man, who believes before he ever joins Rotary, in Service Above Self.

"What will I get out of Rotary?

There’s a lot to be obtained from Rotary, but not by marching along a road of self-seeking. Rotary’s map shows no such road. Rotary has come a long way and will go further, but the travel all has been along the way of doing something for another, not getting something from him."

I don’t believe there is a man in Rotary who hasn’t gotten more out of Rotary than he has put it. There is probably no man living who has put more into Rotary than Joe Caulder, who is here at this Conference representing President Nitish Laharry. And yet I’m sure Joe will tell you he owes as much or more than any man to Rotary.

If you want the important things of life, the finer things of life, you’ll find them in Rotary but you have to give Rotary a chance. If you just come to the weekly meeting and sit back, saying to yourself - "Bring on these things" – you’ll get just what you deserve. Nothing. Bit if you sincerely believe in the things for which Rotary stands and are willing to help Rotary bring them about, you’ll be amply

(cont’d. page G. 32)

Page G. 32


repaid for your efforts.

If you ever hear a man say "I never have gotten anything out of Rotary" you can be sure he never tried. A man in Rotary is one thing; Rotary in a man is something else.

One more question and answer by Arthur Lagueux:

"Have we a right to what we want out of Rotary?

The simple act of becoming a member of a Rotary club does not in itself signify that one automatically becomes truly a Rotarian. It is a good beginning, but only a beginning. The new member is on the right path, but he has to do his own marching".

As in everything else there can be no "right" unless it is earned. We are entitled to nothing unless by our actions we deserve it. So it is with Rotary. If you are to get the many benefits and satisfactions out of Rotary, you will have to earn them by playing your part as an active member of your club and as an active promoter of Rotary’s Object.

Every time a new man joins Rotary, Rotary should be a more effective force. Each new man brings his ideas, talents, time and energy and adds them to the resources of his club. Whether Rotary is more effective for his presence, whether his club is stronger, depends on two factors:

(Cont’d. page G. 34)

Page G. 34


1. The man himself. Does he come in with the right attitude? Does he join because he is a good-hearted man whi believes he can do this part through Rotary, in helping the other fellow? Does he join because he wants to be a part of a club which does these things? And once he is in, does he contribute his share of ideas, time and energy? You know, there has always been one aspect of a Rotary Club which bothers me. As we bring new members into our Clubs we look for the best possible men to fill the classifications. These men are supposed to be, and usually are, leaders in their respective fields. Why is it then, we have so many followers in Rotary Clubs? Where does all the leadership go? Why does all the leadership go? Why does such a large segment of our membership sit back and wait? What are they waiting for? We need men in our clubs with a fresh viewpoint, who will bring forward their ideas on how to make their club work more effectively.

You know – nothing ever happens in Rotary unless some Rotarian in some club makes it happen. I think this is one of the things least understood by Rotarians. There is a very common belief among all too many Rotarians that somewhere there is somebody who will make all those things we hold dear happen. That if we wait long enough, they’ll come about without us doing anything. This is not true. We must realize we are the somebodies to make them happen. Each of us in his own way must do what he can when the

(Cont’d. page G36)

Page G. 36


Opportunity presents itself, because if we don’t, the chances are it won’t get done. The opportunity will have slipped by.

I have on my desk a small plaque on which is enscribed a short paragraph:

"I shall pass through this world but once; any good thing therefore that I can do or any kindness that I can’t show to any human being, let me do it now, let me not defer it or neglect it, for I shall not pass this way again".

In every Rotary club there is always a hard core of men (usually too small) who seem to be in on everything. No matter what the particular activity may be at any given time, they are always in on the ground floor. I think everyone here today could pick out these men in his own club. Are you here recognized as being a part of that hard core of your club? Many of you are I know, because this is the kind of fellow who comes to Conferences. But what about the others? Do they realize they are giving only lip-service to our Object - that not only do they contribute virtually nothing, but they become part of the problem in that they act as a deterrent to those who would serve? Their complacency is a wet blanket on the fire of enthusiasm of active Rotarians. What our daily lives we are men of action, we do things, we cause things to happen. Rotary wants men to put its ideals into action.

(Cont’d. page G. 38)

Page G. 36


And so, that new members, if he is to be an asset to his club, if he is to derive personal benefit from his membership in Rotary, must ally himself with the hard core of his club, with the active, men who are promoting Rotary's Object and are reaping the blessings which go along with it.

I said earlier that whether or not Rotary benefits from this new man depends is on two things. The first was the man. The second is the club.

It is extremely important that the new man have information about Rotary, as I said earlier, if he is to find his place, a useful place, within the club.

There is a vital responsibility on the part of the Club in general, the, sponsor, the Rotary Information or New Members Committee, the Board of Directors and the President, to see that the new member "finds" Rotary and that he becomes an asset to the club.

First he needs information; but he needs more than that. He needs something to do. He needs to serve – and right at the start. If he is the good-hearted man Rotary seeks, he joins, ready, willing, and able to serve. He will have certain preference naturally, and he will have certain aptitudes and talents to put at the disposal of the club. He expects to start serving. In my opinion, there have been have more men fall by the wayside in Rotary for lack of something to do, than for any other reason.

(Cont’d. page G.40)

Page G. 40


I’m quite sure the new member, on joining the club, expects to be given a role to play, a role worthy of his ability, and one which he can see is useful. It is up to the club to help him find his role to the maximum. It takes time to make a Rotarian but all the time in the world won’t do if it there isn’t guidance, inspiration, encouragement, and above all service.

The President of Rotary International this year, Nitish Laharry, has as his theme "Kindle the Spark Within". I suggest to you that all good-hearted men do have within them the spark. Whether this spark is kindled into a flame or not, remains in large measure in the hands of the individual Rotarian. We can be inspired by others, we can be shocked by some incident, or we can be shocked by some incident, or we can be shown by example, but sooner or later we have to realize it is up to us if we are going to get anything worthwhile out of this life and out of Rotary. No one can kindle the spark within you, but you. The day the individual Rotarian realize that it is up to him – that Rotary works when he works – that Rotary coasts when he coasts – in short, when you Discover Yourself – then and only then will Rotary ideals become ideas, and these ideas he transformed into action.

Rotary is a great organization. It has a worthy purpose. Its latent force is almost incalculable. But a latent force can’t accomplish anything, least of all Rotary’s object. If all those who believed would serve, just imagine what Rotary could accomplish.

(cont’d Page G.42)

Page G. 42


I am proud to be a Rotarian. Rotary is a monument to those in the past who have contributed their time and energy, but above all their ideas. Men like Joe Caulder. Our greatest need is for more like them.

Each of you new members represents a new classification in your club. Your fellow members will judge your classification by your actions. You represent your particular line of business in your club. As a leader in your field you are an example.

Remember too, you are now an example of a Rotarian to those about you in your daily life. From now on you will be interpreting Rotary by your thought, word or deeds. Others will judge Rotary in general by you in particular.

Rotary will be for you just what you make it. If you choose to come to lunch every week, sit down at the back, do nothing except when asked, or what is worse, find fault with the way others are doing things, you will miss more than I can tell you. You’ll never know what you’re missing. In fact, you’ll have missed Rotary.

If, on the other hand, you are prepared to give of yourself to your fellow members and others through the various club activities, you’ll be repaid a thousand fold.

Rotary has much to offer but it is up to you.

My hope for all of you is that you will discover the truth of our motto -


Page G. 46


What interests me more about Rotary is that it can take a man who confuses competition with antagonisms, dignity with stiffness, wisdom with solemnity, firmness with severity, patriotism with saber-rattling, and happiness with worldly possessions, and help him to transform himself into a man who combines competition with friendliness, dignity with good fellowship, wisdom with cheerfulness, firmness with kindness, patriotism with tolerance, and happiness with useful service.

-The Rotary Punch, Sioux City, Iowa.



When a classification has been opened, a man has to be found to fill it who is a dignified representative of his classification, and who has a clear understanding of the service aspects of his business or profession,

He must see his business not solely as a means of making money, but as a means of giving his money, time and energy to maintain spiritual values, He will be a man who not only tolerates someone else’s views but respects them in such a manner that there is no doubt about his willingness to understand others.

-Weekly Bulletin, the Rotary Club of Pukekohe, New Zealand

Book III, Page G-47

November 15th, 1969

Mr. Wm. C. Rastetter

C/0 Rotary Club



Dear Bill:

I have been going to write you ever since I read your fine article in the November Rotarian.

With your permission I would like to write a page for one of my four books and use some of the ideas which you write so plainly in your article.

I got to know Paul Harris and Jean at the Salt Lake City convention in 1919. From then on until his passing in 1947 we were rather close friends.

I had him at Regina in 1929 at our conference. He was very unwell but he said "Yes". He made a tremendous hit at our conference. When he arrived Margaret and I met him at the train. He looked so poorly that Margaret at once asked him to come to our house instead of staying at our fine new hotel owned by the C.P.R. He at once accepted the invitation and we had him for 5 days. That visit will never be forgotten by us so long as our memories last.

He made a great hit when he spoke at the opening session. At once I had delegations from Calgary, Edmonton, Saskatoon and Winnipeg asking me if I could induce him to make the circuit. He said, "Joe if you want me to do this I will accept." We arranged for him to speak at Calgary the following Monday, at Edmonton on Tuesday, Saskatoon on Wed. and Winnipeg on Thursday. This meant each club had to change its meeting day.

cont’d . . . . .


In those days R.I. had no extra money and when you requested an R.I. official to come to your District you had to pay all expenses.

We got him a drawing room on the C.P. and C.N. railways for the four nights. Three weeks later we got a letter from the C.P.R. enclosing a cheque as he had cancelled the four D. Rooms and taken a lower berth. That was Paul Harris.

You touch on a question that has been in my mind a lot. I refer to the business exchange they had in the early days. I am satisfied that he never liked it but one day in Montreal we were having lunch at the Rotary Club and my year on the Board was almost ended. He was the speaker and he and I had a long visit in his room. He said "Joe I never liked that part of Rotary, but I admit we would never have gotten to first base without it.". From chats with others who were active in the early days I am sure that what he said was absolutely true. Silvester Schiele later told me the same. They had rough going the first few years and also we must keep in mind that for the first 2 or 3 years they never expected there would ever be but one Rotary Club. Arthur Frederick Sheldon thought the same. I am not so sure how Harry Ruggles and Charlie Newton felt. Ches. Perry later came on the scene and he felt as Paul did on the matter.

The club had grown to be a large club in the first two years.

You say that when The Nat. Assn. was formed in 1910 with 16 clubs the idea was gone. Officially it was but some clubs hung to it for years. I remember Howard Feighner telling me that in 1915 when he was secretary of the San Francisco Club

cont'd ....

Page G-49

He told me that as soon as grace had been said and the National Anthem had been sung his first duty was to go to the check room and check every hat to make sure that each one had been bought from the Rotary hat man. Also at the end of my year, June 29, 1929 I was invited to speak at the Detroit Club. I was amazed to hear a man get up and report the business done between members a week or so prior to the day when I spoke there. That has long since gone.

I understand that Gus Loehr and Hiram Shorey dropped our early when they found it was not a profit making concern. That was in 1905.

The trend away from business was clinched in the second convention at Portland following speeches by Sheldon and Collins of Minneapolis when "He Profits Most Who Serves Best" and "Service Above Self" was said by the two speakers named above.

Bill, I have rambled on much longer than I intended. I hope your article will be widely read so that today’s new member will not grow up in Rotary with incorrect ideas.

Good luck to you and Mrs. Rastetter. I hope to see you at L. Placid in May.


Joe Caulder


Page H.1 


By: Will R. Manier, Jr.

Before the Rotary Club of Chicago-Oct. 2, 1951

(The late Past President Will R. Manier of Nashville, Tenn., was a great Rotarian, topnotch court lawyer and a good friend. He wrote Resolution 34, passed at St. Louis in 1923 ,which charted Rotary’s future course.

(see last page) (J.A.C.)

Read page H 28 first.

"First International President, Fellow Tennesseeans -- and would I were speaker enough to be Fellow Orator, George – President Tom of the Chicago Rotary Club I and Fellow Rotarians: My topic today is THINKING THROUGH CONFUSION. Its scope is such that some of my sentences and many of my paragraph could easily be elaborated into 20 or 30-minute talks.

As I obviously haven't time to elaborate or even to qualify, much that I should like to say must necessarily be left unsaid, and much that I shall say may be oversimplified and much of it may seem to be a bit dogmatic.

I think I shall begin by commenting in a sentence or so on two principal terms in my topic - - confusion and thinking.

That there is confusion all over the world and in out thinking must be obvious to all of us. I think this derives in large part from the unprecedented changes that have taken place in our single generation in communications, through the invention of radio and the airplane; in our knowledge

(see over)

Page H.2


of the world about us and our environments, in our discoveries through the physical sciences; and in our knowledge of ourselves and our own natures, through the discoveries in the social sciences.

More important perhaps than these changes themselves has been the accelerated rate of change.

It used to be that change was so slow and gradual that people of former generations thought that there was hardly any change at all and were somewhat justified in thinking that the world as it was in their generation was as it always had been and probably always would be. This gave them a sense of assurance, a kind of elemental certitude, that’s wholly lacking in our frustrated and confused generation.

I've sometimes wished I could be. Just as sure of anything as my parents and grandparents were of nearly everything.

Moreover, according to our temperaments - - some of us being reactionaries or conservatives and others radicals or liberals, and some of us being optimists and others pessimists - - we have reacted differently to change, and that, too, has added to our confusion.

Someone defined a reactionary as someone who thought that nothing had been done right the first time, and that definition has been kept, by defining a radical as a man who thinks that nothing has ever yet been done right.

Page H.3

THINKING THROUGH Confusion (cont'd)

An optimist has been defined as a man who sees a light in the dark where there is no light, and a pessimist as a man who blows it out.

Now a word or so as to thinking.

I am one of those who has long believed that hard, clear thinking is the only possible solvent for uncertainty, doubt and confusion, and the only adequate solution for our problems. Yet, after more than a decade of conducting a weekly forum in Nashville under the slogan LET’S THINK, I have rather reached the conclusion that, while we believe easily and emote readily, we think only with the greatest difficulty.

I wish I had time to point out in detail and comprehensively our difficulties in thinking. I will only mention a few of them briefly.

First, there is our difficulty with language. Even in England and America, where we are supposed to speak the same language, we frequently use terms with diametrically opposite meanings in our two countries.

For example, when a motion is tabled in Britain it's proposed for debate and adoption and laid out on the table for the purpose, whereas in this country when a motion is tabled debate is shut off, no further action is taken and the motion is laid aside on the table.

Similarly, many an English Rotarian visiting in a private home in this country has later been greatly embarrassed when he learned

(see over)

Page H.4


of the faux pas that he made in undertaking to compliment the daughter of the household by saying, "What a homely girl she is," using the term "homely" in its primary meaning of good, effective and attractive around the household; whereas in our country, because the attractive girls are all too apt to be out on dates and only the unattractive girl left to perform the household chores, the word has acquired a secondary meaning with a connotation of unattractive.

Obviously our difficulties with language are accentuated when we come to deal with high-order abstractions like communism, socialism, fascism and democracy.

Stuart Chase once tried the experiment of having a hundred different, people - - a clergyman, a banker, a doctor, a lawyer, a taxicab driver, a charwoman, and so forth-- undertake to define fascism. I’ve read those hundred definitions and the only thing common to them all is that none of those who made the definition liked fascism.

And we'd have great trouble in this room agreeing on a definition of any of these high-order abstractions.

The experiment was once tried in the Secretariat at Chicago of Rotary International of translating our object - - its object now instead of four objects - - first from English into French, French into German, German into Spanish, Spanish into Italian, and so on through a score of languages


Page H.5


used in Rotary Clubs, and then the final foreign language translation was re-translated back into English and laid alongside the original English and the two bore almost no resemblance to each other.

I told that once, in speaking to the International Assembly of District Governors,

and afterwards one of the governors from New Jersey - - he was an Episcopal clergyman - - came up and said he could understand that story because of the difficulties of his church in translating its name into Japanese when they first established Japanese missions there.

As you nay know, the official name of that church is the Protestant Episcopal Church of the United States of America, and the Japanese translation, when literally translated back into English, was the Church of the Kicking American Missions.

Being a member of that church and slightly acquainted with some of its bishops, I had to admit it was a pretty good translation at that.

A second of our difficulties in thinking derives from the opinions that we have inherited from the past - - what a philosopher has called the "dogma of authority" -- and from the opinions that are current among our socialists - - what another philosopher has called the "whispering of the hard" - - and especially from what Professor Ogman has dubbed the "cultural or social fad," by which he meant that while we have acquired the scientific

(see over)

Page H. 6


method in the physical sciences, we’ve made no such progress in the social sciences.

Two illustrations will suffice.

Aristotle, the great Greek philosopher, wrote two great works: One is PHYSICS, in which he undertook to give his opinions of the physical world about him, and the other is METAPHYSICS, in which he added his views on religion, politics, government, social and economic questions.

No physical scientist now would think for a moment of referring to Aristotle's PHYSICS as authority, ant yet if I had the time to point it out, you'd be surprised to find how many of your own opinions on social and economic questions, many of them uncritical, derived directly from Aristotle 's METAPHYSICS.

Similarly, if you had a wreck with your new 1951 Cadillac automobile and carried it to a garage mechanic for repairs, he'd get about doing what needed to be done without any mystical reverences for the earlier forms of the gas engine or the Model T. Ford, or even the horse and buggy that preceded the automobile age.

A third of our difficulties in thinking derives from our human tendency to rationalize - - that is, to try to justify ourselves, our country, our opinions, our political parties, and even our prejudices.


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A fourth difficulty in thinking comes from the conventional notions that people all over the world - - and this is especially in thinking internationally - - have of peoples in other parts of the world.

I had a German Rotarian tell me, for example, that if Rotarians in Rotary Clubs in different parts of the world were asked to write on elephants, that a German would probably get out a 10-volume introduction to the study of elephants, an Austrian would write on the memoirs of an old elephant, a Slav would write on mysticism among the elephants, a Frenchman would get out a deluxe volume on love life among the elephants, an Englishman would write on hunting elephants, and an American would write on more and bigger and better elephants.

A similar story was given me by a Hungarian Rotarian, who said that one German was apt to be a scientist, two would be a singing society or a Turnverein, and three would be the army; that one Englishman would be a snob, two would be a club, and three would be the empire; that one Frenchman is a lover, two Frenchmen are perverts, and three Frenchmen are maenads.

I thought he .was going to tell me what one, two, three Americans were, so I interrupted him and asked him, "Now about the Hungarians," and I think he said about them what he had planned to say about Americans. He said one Hungarian is an individualist, two are likely to be three political parties, and you can't have three Hungarians because one of them is bound to be a Jew.

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Curiously enough, these conventional notions are apt to work in reverse.

In England and America, if a man abscounds, we say he takes French leave, but in France they say he takes English leave. And in East Prussia the worst insult that can be hurled at a man is to call him a Russian cockroach, but in Russia the insult is a Prussian cockroach.

The first time I ever spoke to a British Rotary Club, I was introduced in this wise: The president had been with me all the forenoon, and he said, "Fellow Rotarians, I have been with Bill Manier all the morning and I know you’ll be glad to know that he's not a typical American." Having in mind the British idea that the typical American is a loud-mouthed, blatant, boastful ass.

I don't know what I'd intended to say at that meeting but I abandoned it and took my introduction as the topic, and I undertook whimsically to describe the typical American as we think he is and then the typical American as the Britisher thinks he is, and then the typical American as he really is. And then I put the shoe on the other foot and humorously described the typical Britisher as he thinks he is, and the typical Britisher as we think he is, and the typical Britisher as he really is.

And then I pointed out that the typical Britisher and the typical American, as they really are, are as alike as two peas in a pod.


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And, one thing I've learned from Rotary: That whilst we have superficial differences, that the world over are the same and their problems are the same, and if I had time to elaborate I could show it to you, And that offers great hope, if we just break through iron curtains and bamboo curtains, which unfortunately we can’t at the moment.

Now, having in mind these difficulties in our thinking, let's think a little bit about some of the problems we are concerned with.

Let's glance at free enterprise.

There's nothing that gets more applause when it's advocated in Rotary Clubs, and yet I say to you that we not only don’t have free enterprise in this country, there isn't a man in this room that wants it.

If we were really to have free enterprise we'd have to do away with the Interstate Commerce Commission, with our state regulatory bodies, with our regulation of banks, corporations, insurance companies, certificates of necessity and convenience for operating buses and trucks on the highway, with our tariffs and with our whole system of taxation.

Of course, each one of us wants free enterprise for ourselves but we want the other fellow regulated, and about the best we can hope for is to have private

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enterprise with a minimum of government interference in business.

Now let's glance at something that we inveigh against mightily -- bureaus and bureaucrats - - usually with the implication that they are something that the politicians in Washington thrust off on us common folks back home.

I once made a rather elaborate study of bureaus and these federal agencies, and as a result I came to the conclusion that the politicians were way behind the people, that what we really did, every one of them came at the behest of at least a minority back home; and you try to abolish one of them-- I don’t care what it is - - some of you in this room will be sending telegrams to your congressmen and your senators urging them to leave it the way it is.

About the best we could hope for is to do away with our red tape, have them economically and efficiently operated with a minimum of personnel and not too greatly interfere in our own operations back on the local level.

And now I come to something that's very dear to all of our hearts, and that’s the Americanism and the American way of life, but they are high-order-abstractions, and we could no more agree on a definition of Americanism and the American way of life in this room than Stuart Chase's hundred people could agree on the definition of fascism.


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The labour union man would say that the American way of life includes the unrestricted right to collective bargaining in the closed shop. The manufacturer would insist on freedom of contract in the open shop. They wouldn't agree with each other nor either of them with the big businessman, nor he with the small businessman, nor any of them with the consumer.

Perhaps if we in this room tried to define Americanism and the American way of life the only thing common in our definitions would be that we’d say something about democracy.

But democracy, too, is a high-order abstraction - - we'd have difficulty agreeing on that. So, for the purpose of clarity, I'm going to give you a working definition of democracy as I mean when I mention the term here.

I'm going to define democracy as the right to believe and think and, within the bounds of decency and propriety, to say what we please without the risk of being thrown into an internment camp or liquidated or seized by secret police, plus the right of the individual to choose the occupation of his choice and to exercise it in the place of his choice with a minimum of regulation by the state plus the right of the citizen, in reasonably fair election, to select the representatives who will go into government.

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Now, you will not fail to have noted that I have made that definition in terms of rights; but I want you to know that I'm not unaware of the fact that rights and duties or responsibilities are reciprocal and one of my pet gripes during the last 10 years or 20 years has been that we’ve been putting all of our emphasis on rights and none of it on duties, and democracy can't survive unless we put the emphasis on duties.

And another pet gripe, and it’s related to it, is that under the impact of the totalitarian idea we've adopted what Hitler announced as the Fuehrer Princip - - the leader principle he diagrammed, with the leader at the top of the apex of the curve and the people down at the bottom - - and his thesis was that every-thing came from the top instead of the base. And that's just what's happening unconsciously here.

Let there be a problem in your local community, and what to you do? Appoint a committee to go to Washington, instead of doing what we did in the pioneer days, of solving our own local problems.

And now I come to the problem that I think is the crucial problem of our generation and one that's the central theme of this talk.

Of late it’s been the habit to talk a lot about one world. Wendell Wilkie wrote a book with that title. And in the physical and material sense, one world is possible,


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due to the speedup in communications. But in the realm of ideas and of the spirit, I submit that we’re not living in one world but in two worlds - - that of the western democracy, defining democracy as I've just defined it, and that of Soviet Communism --and it's greatly my fear that if we ever live in one world it will be because one or the other of those two system, prevails, and that's what the communists think, too, in their thinking.

Now, I know that communism is another high-order abstraction, so for the purpose of clarity I'm going to give you a definition of that.

And I'm defining Soviet Communism now, not Marxist Communism, although, of course Soviet Communism draws from the base of Marxist Communism for its philosophy.

My definition of Soviet Communism is that it' s a world-wide conspiratorial movement designed for the seizure by Russia of a monopoly of world power and directed by a small group - - Stalin and the Politburo - - who are motivated entirely by self-interest and the will to power. Socially it is totalitarian, economically it is collectivist, and politically its methods are mass self-deceptive propaganda and mass terrorism through secret police, internment camps and the threat of war.

Now, you'll note I’ve put very little emphasis on the economic phase of communism. Incidentally, neither do the communists. That's just the rule that

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they use to get the have-nots on their side, and we can make a very great mistake in our thinking by putting all of our emphasis on the economic phase and too little on the political phase.

I don't like the economic phase, but it's the political that I’m most afraid of.

Now in 1936 and ‘37 when I was President of Rotary International, Hitler and Mussoli were just coming into power in Europe, and I was much there. On my first trip over somebody sent to the boat a copy of Hitler's MEIN KAMPF, and having not much else to do on the boat going over, I read it and came to the conclusion which history has since confirmed: that in MEIN KAMPF Hitler had documented his plans, purposes and intentions.

So, when Munich came and my wife and I were sitting around the radio completely deflated, first thing Ruth said to me is: "Will, don’t Chamberlain and Daladier know that next spring Hitler will go into Czechoslovakia, the Red Table and the rest of Czechoslovakia, and after the harvest is gathered will go into Poland?"

And, of course, that is exactly what he did, and it took no prescience to realize he was going to do that, if you’ve read main Kampf.

And then Ruth said to me: "In the light of MEIN KAMPF, how could Chamberlain and Daladier have done what they did?"

And we came to the conclusion that the reasons were twofold: First, that they


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either hadn't read MEIN KAMPF -- and they probably hadn’t; or if they had, it was so incredible they didn’t believe it, and second, that they didn't think England and France were then ready to meet the military threat of the axis powers.

That experience with MEIN KAMPF in mind as the menace of Soviet Communism has been developed, I rather jumped to the conclusion that these communists may have blueprinted their plans and intentions just as thoroughly as Hitler did his in his MEIN KAMPF, and I began to delve in Marx and Engels and read the works and speeches of Lenin and the speeches of Stalin- - and, incidentally, their speeches, many of them, are in full in the New York Times and the Christian Science Monitor - - and as a result I can give you what their theses are and I can document every one of them.

And here they are:

First, that communism comes about, and can only come about, through the class struggle and the chaos that results therefrom, and therefore it is the duty of every communist to promote the class struggle and the resulting chaos.

Second, that communism can never come about through an evolutionary process of social amelioration but only through violence and revolution, and therefore it’s the duty of communists to promote revolution by violence; and there’s no group that the Soviet Communists inveigh against more bitterly than the evolutionary socialist,

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the moderate, middle-of-the-road socialist.

Third, that communism can never succeed in a single country -- as, for example, Russia - - but in order to succeed at all it must be international and world-wide, and therefore it is the duty of the communist to promote revolution; not in his own country but in everybody else's country.

Fourth - - - and I’m using their very language -- the communist, because the end justifies the means, must disregard what he calls bourgeois morality, that is, he may lie, he may steal, he may cheat., he may murder to promote communism,

And fifth, the communist must never compromise. While for the purposes of expediency he may pretend to compromise, he does so with no intension of abiding by the concessions he makes but every intention of repudiating when the time is ripe for so doing.

And then sixth, that when the communists come to power in any country - - -political power - - - and a coalition government is proposed - what the communist and all over Europe they called a "popular front" - - it is the duty of the communists to join the popular front government, but not for the purpose of making it succeed but for the purpose of making it fail.

And the next, the United Nations they regard as an international popular front, and they're in there - - not for the


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Purpose of making it succeed but for the purpose of making it fail.

And then their eighth thesis is a very important one for us. They think that time is in their favor and the capitalistic system will break down of its own weight, "and that gives us time to prepare if we’ll watch."

It’s obvious, too, that while they don't particularly want war they think it might be necessary, because here is what Lenin said: "International capitalism and communism can never exist side by side and there can be no peace as long as both exist. Ultimately one or the other will triumph. A funeral requiem will be played either over capitalism or over the Soviet Republic."

For the moment we’re all inclined to believe that while Russia will use subversive efforts, use satellites, Russia's not yet ready for the all-out war.

Now, there’s what they say about their own system, and if it be true - - and they think it’s true - - it’s the greatest menace to the free western countries in all our long history and we ought to be giving thought as to what our course is going to be.

In undertaking to formulate our concrete plans to meet that menace, we must have certain fundamental consideration in mind, it seems to me, and here’s what I think they are:

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First, we must know communism and understand the motivations and intentions of the communist leaders and realize that you can’t deal with them with sweetness and light or by the democratic process of compromise; but we must constantly distinguish between the leaders and the great mass of repressed peoples, especially in China and the satellite countries - - and unfortunately, only to a lesser extent in Russia itself - - and be on our guard not to give the leaders the opportunity to propagandize these people into thinking we are the aggressors and arousing their national patriotism.

Second, it seems to me we must resist the spread of communism whenever, wherever, however and to whatever extent we have the power to do so.

While in doing so we may have to run the calculated risk war, I certainly don’t want us to think that an all-out third, atomic world was is necessary and inevitable. We must do everything we can to avoid it. But if fight we must in order to resist the spread of communism, then fight we will.

And third, in resisting communism it seems to that we want to make the best possible use we can of the United Nations, no matter how griped we may have at times been because of their ineptitude. And we must realize that they include our potential allies and that we’ve got to give some consider-


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ation to their views and we just can't ride rough-shed over those who are potential allies.

And certainly we must not permit Russia to swallow up our potential allies one by one like Hitler tried to do, and I don't think we need be too squeamish in who are our allies. If a think war comes we will certainly need Greece and Turkey and Tito's Yugoslavia, and we'll probably need France and his 30 divisions in the Iberian Peninsula, because we might even have to retire there for time, and we’ll certainly need the Nationalist troops on Formosa as a defense on that front.

And then, fourth, it seems to me in resisting communism, if possible we want to save our own economic system and not destroy it, but we may have to risk that and we can advisedly and calculatedly do so, because if we lose to Soviet Communism we lose our economic system anyhow.

And fifth - - and I want to put emphasis on it because we in America are kind of schizophrenics and torn between idealism and self-interest - - in forming our policy in the United States, I want us not to forget American self-interest.

Fortunately, that doesn't mean to me a choice between our self-interest and that of all the other free countries, because I believe their self-interests are the same as ours, not does it mean a choice between altruism and selfishness, because our self-interest coincides with our idealistic temperament.

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Now, what concretely does our American self-interest seem to me to require?

First, that we must mobilize militarily, industrially, economically and diplomatically and get every potential ally to do the same thing and help them to the full extent we can and do it just as quick as we can and do that for two reasons: Russia will understand only force and the threat of force, and certainly if war comes we want to be prepared for it.

And then; second, we want to seize the initiative and not leave it to Russia to call the tune.

That's what we were doing in Berlin with the air lift; that's what we were doing in Europe with the Marshall Plan, what we were doing in Greece with the Truman Doctrine and what we did in our intervention in Korea.

And then, third, above everything else, and it’s most crucial: We want to see that Europe is made defensible, and defensible at the earliest possible moment, so that we can have at least the time to hold the Elbe and the Rhine while we are getting in our bombing forays into Russia. And no American mission has ever seemed to me fraught with greater consequence or greater importance than that of General Eisenhower, and our prayers ought to be with him until it’s accomplished.

And fourth, our self-interest and that of all the free world urgently requires that we defend Formosa, the Philippines, Okinawa and Japan.


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And fifth, our self-interest urgently required our intervention in Korea.

I don't know how many of you ever heard of the Peiping conference. I’d like to see the hands of anybody who has really heard about it. I think what I’m going to tell you about it is absolutely true. I could tell off-the-record how my information comes.

About three months before the outbreak of war in Korea, this was in the press; - there was no speculation of what happened. There met in Peiping Mao Tze Tung, the Premier, Chou En Lai, the Foreign Minister of China, and a lot of top Chinese Communist military men, Molotov representing the Russians, and a lot of top Russian military and economic advisors. And Molotov put it up to the group: "Now, you've established yours if China, you've displaced all the former municipal officers with devout communists, you've got control of the food supply and your position is secure. You must join the universal expansion of the communist movement and take charge of it in Asia.

And four means were discussed: First, the invasion - - and this took place three month, now, before the outbreak of the Korean War - - first, the invasion of Tibet by the communists and they have done that; second, support by the Chinese Communists of the Viet Minh in French Indo-China, by military force if necessary - - "You must mass armies there" - - and they have

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done that; and then two other: The invasion of South Korea by the Northern Koreans and the invasion of Formosa from Continental China - - and, incidentally, the Chinese are more interested in the invasion of Formosa than anything, but Mototov said: "You mustn't do that because that's so much in the self-interest of be United States they’ll necessarily intervene if you do that."

He guessed absolutely wrong because we’d been so propagandized about the inefficiency of the Nationalists and Chiang Kai Shek we wouldn't have done a thing until it was all over.

Then they talked about the North Korean War, and that brought up - - would we intervene there - - and he said, "No, there is a legal and moral obligation on the part of the United States to intervene, they set up the South Korean Republic and trained its army, but it's not enough it their self-interests and they won’t intervene."

He guessed absolutely wrong there.

So, the program was agreed upon to put the Korean War on ahead of the invasion of Formosa.

And then the Chinese Communists turned to Molotov, and said, "We have a mutual defense pact with you. The possibility - - and we’ve discussed it - - is we might get involved in was with the United States. If there is fighting on the Chinese main-


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land or in Manchuria, or Manchuria is bombed, will Russia honor that pact and immediately come into the war?"

And Russia categorically assured them that it would.

That, of course, has been the reason for our policy in fighting a limited war, making ground rules against ourselves, at least until we are prepared for an all-out, general war.

Now, in carrying out this policy that I’m advocating here, there are certain things that we must guard against.

Obviously we want to be on our guard against the communists within our midst. But on two counts I'm not too concerned about that: In the first place, there are not many of them. In the second place, I happen to be pretty well assured that our military authorities and the FBI have pretty well got them all spotted.

I’m far more concerned with those I call the communist dupes - - well-meaning people, women, some of them intellectuals, liberals, or whatever they are - - that unconsciously are preaching the communist line. I’m talking about those people who, when Russia is discussed, will say, "Well, Russia may be pretty bad, but think how bad we are over here. Think how we treat the poor Negroes and the Jews and the other minority races."

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And then I’m thinking of those people who are so opposed to war that they engage in wishful thinking and think we won’t have any war.

And then I'm thinking too, of a lot of people around these tables who are so concerned with our own immediate self-interests - - we are in the top economic brackets - - and so afraid we will lose those immediate interests that we’re overlooking our long-range interests and not taking care of that.

And then those of us who are so concerned with criticizing the President and the administration that we'd rather vent our spleen on them than to win the Korean War.

And, of course, I’m thinking of the isolationists too - - those who advocate we withdraw into this continent, build up an air force and a navy.

You can’t win a war with the air force and a navy. Neither can you go into a ivory tower, no matter how much you’re armored. And logically, you can’t go in a hole and pull the hole in after you. And it’s crazy to sit shivering in a storm cellar and wait until the storm breaks over.

Now, I realize that much that I have said is bound to be a bit depressing to you, as it is to me. Let me give you just a word of encouragement, and I’m nearly through.


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I believe that if we get the proper meaning between audacity and caution, and daring and prudence, and if we are on our toes and alert and don't wait until it’s too late, we don’t have to have this war, because we can get so strong that it will be against the self-interests of the men in the Kremlin - - who are motivated only by self-interests - - to bring that war on.

And certainly if the war comes, we’d want to be prepared, and if we are prepared we can win it, and I will tell you why very briefly.

There'll be certain factors in our favor. We’ll control the seas undoubtedly. If we continue manufacturing our planes, we’ll ultimately control the air. We can certainly out-produce Russia. Ana the war, if it's fought, will be fought on two fronts where our communications will be secure because they're across the ocean, either in western Europe or in eastern Asia.

Russia's communications will be based almost entirely in the east on the double-track Trans-Siberian Railroad, and they haven’t cars enough to carry the necessities of the army there. And if they don't do it that way, they haven’t got the oil nor the tracks nor the roads to bring it any other way.

And the same thing is true of western Europe, because the Russian railroads are double or broad gauge and the other roads west are standard gauge and, while the roads are there in western Europe, they haven't got the oil and they haven't got any place to get it.

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But it's essential that western Europe be defended because if they acquire western Europe they will triple their steel production, double their coal production and, with the manufacturing know-how of the European and the raw materials of the Ruhr, and the fortress of the Ruhr and Alsace-Lorraine and the Saar Basin and the great land mass of Eurasia, it’s hard to see how we can win.

An, more than anything else, we've got an intangible on our side, and that is we have got right and truth and justice - - and I don't care what you say about the Lord being on the side of the strongest divisions, those divisions are the strongest divisions and have the greatest stamina that have right and truth and justice on their side.

Now, in closing, let us just remind you of the stakes - - our right to think and believe and say that we please, my right to stand up here and make this talk without expecting a secret policeman to tap me on the shoulder, your right to criticize the President, our right to be Rotarians - - no Rotary clubs could exist in communist countries; and Phil Lovejoy will tell you there is a letter in the Secretariat written by a Northern Korean listing the names of 10 Northern Korean Rotarians who were executed by the Communists for the sole reason that they were members of Rotary Clubs - - the right of your children to be Boy Scouts, Girl Scouts, the right of all of us to worship


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in the church of our choice, to pursue the occupation of our choice.

Aren’t those stakes high enough for us to do something about?

What can we do? Pass a resolution?

Of course not. But each as an individual has to face up to this thing as I am trading to face up to it and trying to get you to face up to it. That's the way Rotary works. And we've got to do one little thing that I could make a full talk about: We've got to improve the situations in our own country and in the countries -- Rotary countries - - all over the world.

But we can at least do this, and I hope you'll join me in doing it: Let's right here - - not publicly on a formal resolution, but each to himself -- make a declaration to oppose the spread of Communism wherever we can.

And then, as I close, I want you to join me, not vocally but in your minds, as I repeat the final sentence of our American Declaration of Independence: "And for the support of this Declaration (I mean yours and mine against the spread of communism) and with a firm reliance on the protection of Divine Providence, we mutually pledge to each other our lives, our fortunes and our sacred honor."

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The reader may feel there is not much Rotary in this speech, but just read the last page again. Will Manier was not only a great President of Rotary International, but an outstanding lawyer and a brilliant student.

In Rotary in 1951 there was a turmoil because a strong group of fine Rotarians were opposed to too much control from the top. Will Manier wanted control from the ranks. This all culminated in a terrific battle the following June at the Mexico City convention (1952) where Will Manier's group were defeated and Pres. Frank Spain came out on top.

In this speech Will Manier was talking about World Confusion but underneath he had in mind the confusion existing in worldwide Rotary. Frank Spain was also a great Rotarian. He got through legislation at Mexico City that looked impossible the day the convention opened. This writer was Chairman of Election Arrangements Committee at Mexico City so was close to the undercurrents. Also, in 1951-52 was on a special committee to work out ways to make the selection of the R. I. President more democratic. They were great days in Rotary.

Will Manier was President of R.I. in 1936-37 and died suddenly on January 31st, 1953.

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(Address by NITISH LAHARRY, of the Rotary Club of Calcutta, India, delivered at
Toronto on November 23rd, 1962. Nitish Laharry was President of R.I. and the Rotary Club of Toronto was commemorating its 50th Anniversary. There were 1,116 present from 112 Rotary clubs at this noon function.



Mankind, today, stands on the cross-roads of Destiny. We have to battle with forces, The likes of which was never before known in human history - - both evil and good. If our own basic concept of the Universe is correct, we have a long way to go to get to our goal of a world-order, the basis of which is friendliness and recognition of the essential one-ness of all humanity, under our Supreme Creator.

"Thou hast made me known to friends I knew not, Thou has given me seats in homes not my own, Thou has brought the distant near and made a brother of the stranger"

so sang the great Indian poet, Rabindranath Tagore, the Nobel laureate.

So also runs my dream for the creation of a world order based upon neighborliness and friendliness - - a world fellowship on a person-to-person basis.

At the very height of the machine age, in an era of comparative soullessness ushered in by the philosophy of Negativism, a seed was planted by a lawyer in Chicago about 58 years ago. With four other men from different professions and businesses with

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the avowed purposes of combating their dense of loneliness in the midst of the millions in that great city and of helping one another, t blossomed forth into the National Association of Rotary Clubs. Some six year later, the idea of mutual help was dropped and the motto, "He Profits Most Who Serves Best", adopted. As a practical philosophy, businessmen of those days felt this was sufficient to express the trend of Rotary, but the feeling also grew that Rotary wasn’t just an instrument for the amassing of wealth and that, additionally, it had a higher purpose, viz. to recognize the fact that the basis of all business was "Service" to all concerned. Thus came the birth of our motto, "Service above Self", which, together with "He Profits Most Who Serve Best", continues to be the guide lines in the lives of Rotarians all the world over. And after the first global war with humanity torn asunder by a conflict of feelings and new trends of thought, it flowered into the international association known as Rotary International.

In its maturity, after the second global cataclysm, Rotary found itself developing with a new meaning and significance. It found that the Rotary consciousness was developing beyond the limits of mere "Internationalism", with the necessary limitations placed upon it by our concept of nationalism, when considered as an end in itself. Rotary then felt that it had to think in terms of the world as a whole, without artificial fetters and manmade barriers. It aimed at the establish-


Page I. 3


ment of a world fellowship of business and professional men, united in the ideal of service, who, as leaders from different vocations in their communities, would carry this message to their fellowmen. Today the world has been compressed into a neighborhood. Today we recognize that no man is an island by himself. Our communities are no longer bounded by our door-steps and, hence, in the Soaring Sixties, the idea is gradually evolving that it is the fully-integrated man - - a completely service-minded Rotarian

- - who can be a true torch-bearer of the Rotary message to the world. A completely integrated man is one who does not ignore, but recognizes, the element of spirit in himself. And, thus, Rotary is taking on a deeper meaning and significance and giving greater emphasis to the concept of the individual as the core of society and all the elements that go towards his make-up - - the mind, the body, and the spirit.

Such has been the evolutionary growth of Rotary International, which is now in its 58th year and encompasses practically the whole of the free world, with over 526,500 members in 11,365 clubs in 128 countries and geographical regions.

Fifty years in the life of a man is a fairly long period, but one-half century in the life of an institution is like a drop in the ocean. The Rotary Club of Toronto, now completes its 50th year, and I am proud to be a participant in this great function celebrating that event in this mighty metropolis upon which the eyes of the world are sharply focused. I am particularly

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happy to be a part of this great gathering which demonstrates the true internationality of our great movement. I congratulate your fellow Rotarians, who have made possible this celebration.

The record of your past achievements proves there has been a propelling power behind all your endeavors. Your contributions to the growth and strength of Rotary have been most significant. One of Rotary's outstanding achievements has been the Rotary Foundation Fellowships for International Understanding, awarded every year to students for study and for ambassadorial contacts in a country other than their own. The contributions to this fund, which have aggregated during the last 15 years about nine million dollars, have been made voluntarily by Rotarians from all over the world. During these years Rotary International has awarded 1,594 Fellowships to students from 71 countries who in turn have studied in 55 countries.

Of equal importance has been the voluntary effort by Rotarians in international exchange of youth at club and district levels. During each of the past few years more than 10,000 such students have been given opportunities of visiting other countries with a view to broadening their outlook on life. Rotary’s work in the direction of relief for crippled children is now a matter of history; each Rotary club has a proud record in the matter of rehabilitation of the weak and the afflicted and those who have suffered


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from natural calamities. Many Rotarians have been instrumental in establishing codes of correct business practice, and in many other ways introducing high ethical standards in businesses and professions. In all places Rotarians have been credited with commendable effort to reduce the gap between the "haves" and the "have nots". In the field of internationalism, the quest has been directed to helping the Rotarian project himself into other lands to help him understand the ways of life of people beyond his own country.

It was George Bernard Shaw who said that every man should periodically take stock of his deeds in order to justify his existence of this planet. It would, therefore, be appropriate that we should do a little bit of heart-searching on this occasion not only to insure continued progress but, more importantly, to avoid a state of complacency and to pave the way for a greater future.

Since the turn of the century, the world has been forced into a chaotic condition. All that man has built by his energy, vision and foresight during the past 7,000 years or more seems to be on the very brink of destruction. The last 25 centuries have seen more then 900 international wars and over 1,900 domestic broils. We are surrounded by disruptive forces all around us which threaten this planet with complete destruction. There is the paradox of poverty in the midst of plenty; there is the soul-searing ideology of regimentation and. the

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obliteration of the individual; there is a growing tendency towards soullessness; there are also greed and avarice and trends towards lawlessness in many areas; lastly, there is the problem of the population explosion.

This, then is the thumbnail picture of the brave, new world as we see it today.

"... Man, Proud Man

Dressed in a little brief authority,

Most ignorant of what he's most assured,

(His glassy essence) like an angry ape,

Plays such fantastic tricks before high heaven, as make the angels weep."

Who was it who said: "Go teach Eternal wisdom how to rule and then fall into thyself and be a fool"?

What, then, is the root cause of this terrible malady - - this frightful imbalance in the lives of human beings?

I feel, myself, that we might be helped toward a solution of these problems if we accepted the simple truth that man is not just an overgrown ape and that the applicability of the law of evolution is not confined to the physical world but also to the more important sphere of the spiritual.

That distinguishes mankind from the rest of creation is his exclusive possession of the element of conscience -- a self-subduing conscience which raises his evolution out of the merely physical to


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the higher and spiritual plane. Mankind has been endowed with the power that enables him to choose, through his free will between a return to animality or the pursuit of his upward role in evolution, mankind has now a Fifth Freedom - - "The freedom of choice".

It is here that Rotary steps in with its motto of "Service Above Self", which simply interpreted means "thoughtfulness of and helpfulness to others." This is the element in man which enables him to realize his affinity with his fellow human beings and to identify himself with others - - no matter where he may be located - - no matter what his color, creed, or race may be.

I personally feel what is required today to restore the lost equilibrium among the body, mind and the soul of man is a revolution. Mere materialistic revolution will never solve our problems, which are both material and spiritual. What is required is a revolution in human nature itself, based upon those word of divine wisdom, "Man cannot live by bread alone".

This, therefore, is the revolution in human nature we seek to effect by making full use of our conscience, our self-subduing conscience, in subduing our own little egos and in thinking more of the other man than our own selves, in giving of our own selves, not necessarily from our check book; in brief, in coordinating the "give" and "get" instincts within ourselves. And it is only by learning to give of ourselves to others that we can integrate ourselves with

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other human being and be on the way to becoming fully-integrated and service-mined man. It is only by this process of our identifying ourselves with others that we can make Rotary a living power in our own lives and a vital force in our communities - - local and world wide.

It is not a new philosophy. It is not merely a good idea. It is not the sole prerogative of the preacher or the perquisite of the few. It is, to put it bluntly, the condition of our survival as homo sapiens.

Rotary does claim to be the originator of "Service above Self". It is as o1d as humanity itself. But, with due humility, I assert that its special contribution lies in the fact that it has converted this intangible concept into a specific one by attempting to correlate it to the needs of modern man, through the opportunities given to the individual Rotarian and clubs in its Four Avenues of Service.

Rotary is really "Idealism in Practice". Although Rotarians follow the gleaming goal of of service above self, they have their feet firmly planted on solid ground. As business and professional men - - successful business and professional men - - Rotarians are expected to be hard-headed realists, but they must never forget the call to the pursuit of high ideals and lofty objectives. That is idealism.


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It is this combination of high-minded idealism and hard-headed realism which makes Rotary such a great force for the good of mankind. And when a man realizes that this power is within himself, his capacity for service is increased enormously.

We believe that the foundation on which all business rests is primarily service to the community. We do not believe that "business is just business". Business supports life itself, and there is no special form of business morality which is different from the morality which rules the rest of life. The phrase, "business is business", is just a cloak for hiding irresponsible and unsocial practices, which do not spell business but the death of business.

If you would pause for a moment to ponder upon our second motto, "He Profits Most Who Serves Best", you will find that Rotary does not attempt to create just dreamers of dreams who spend their days in chasing the Golden Fleece or in creating a race of new Galahads. We feel that in the world, constituted as it is today, it will be easier to change the leopard's pots the human nature and it ingrained instinct for profit making. According to a great thinker, "the instinct of human nature towards self-interest is embedded in the glandular and nervous organism of man and is the result of atavistic forces of centuries". If this is true, we would be right in considering capitalism to be an outgrowth from certain basic human

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instincts, and I would maintain that the economic urge in us - - our instinct for making and amassing wealth which is the profit motive in man - - cannot be rooted out from human nature either by the sword of by legislation. It is on this principle that I say with all the emphasis that I can command, let us make all the legitimate profit we can, but in doing so let the basis of that profit be service to all concerned. And I assert with equal emphasis that profit making finds its fullest expression and its most universal acceptance when in juxtaposition with our service motto, it evolves into that tighter realm envisaged in our motto, "He Profits Most Who Serves Best". The profit motive and the service motive are, in my opinion not mutually exclusive alternatives.

Rotary has now developed to the point where its internationalism must be stressed more
and more. The ultimate objective of Rotary is the creation of world fellowship on a person-to-person basis. Rotary begins with fellowship and reaches its climax in a world fellowship. Peace begins in the minds of men and, as such the defenses of peace must also be built in the minds of men in order to prepare each individual for the realization that a warless world is possible only if each one of us is determined that "nation shall no longer lift sword against nation."

A recent example of what nations can do by the exercise of wise statesmanship and fore-


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sight is provided by Britain, who voluntarily gracefully, and bloodlessly surrendered her sovereignty over many lands in Asia and Africa. Thereby Britain did not liquidate an empire, but created a great reservoir of friendship amongst those people. Today in India alone there are thousands of Britishers pursuing their vocations in an atmosphere of friendship and good will. These are bridges of friendship of which mankind should be proud.

I will again emphasize this truth that Rotary continues to be Rotary because it is international, and the moment we minimize the importance of this factor, that moment will spell the death of Rotary. If we consider ourselves to be a national service organization, Rotary will occupy the same position as any other trade or mercantile association. By building up little nationalistic groups within our organization, we are completely forgetting the primary reason for Rotary's growth and development into a world-embracing body. We are mistaking the road for the destination. Secondly unless there is uniformity in the method and manner of our approach towards our basic ideal, that self-same ideal will be be-dimmed and be-fogged and our very unity be jeopardised.

I believe Rotary has a different mission - -a different path to tread- - in that it aims at the establishment of a world fellowship on a person-to-person basis. In internationalism, Rotary seeks to find its true dimension. Narrow, immature nationalism is an evil of two major dimensions - -

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its tendencies to parochialism and insularity. Rotary insists that each Rotarian be a loyal and serving citizen of his own country. But should that make us blind to history and the law of evolution? Have we forgotten that the era of cavemen gave place to tribalism which was followed by feudalism, and which again, in turn was succeeded by kingdoms, empires and republics and today; by a Commonwealth of Nations. Is human evolution going to stop here? Has mankind come to a dead-end like the Brontosaurus and Dinosaurus of yesteryear? Is mere nationalism the end of our quest, or is man-kind ready to march upward into the next higher level by realizing his affinity with every other human being, and thus coalescing with the rest of his kind into the family of man, the one-world of our dreams?

One-world does not mean "universal meddling", but a world based upon a person-to-person relationship. Nor does it mean any attempt to herd together humans into a polyglot society or to impose one's way of life or beliefs upon others or interfere with their activities. Difference there must be amongst human beings, but one must develop one’s capacity to disagree, without being disagreeable, and then increase the areas of agreement and thus reduce the points of differences. Is it not true that in spite of all the variations and dissimilarities in nature whether in the mineral world or in the animal kingdom, everything moves towards unity into one


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force found in the atom - - where all variety and diversity merge into a single Supreme Oneness - - the ultimate objective even of science - - Einstein's quest of the unified field theory?

To quote the words of Dr. Karl K. Darrow, research physicist at the Bell Telephone Laboratories:

"The belief that all things are made of a single substance is as old as thought itself, but ours is the generation which, first in history, is able to receive the unity of Nature not as a baseless dogma or a hopeless aspiration, but a principle of science based on proof as sharp and clear as anything which is known."

May I remind you of the motto of the United States on its seal "E Pluribus Unum" - - out of many one - which is most significant in that it emphasizes the fact that unity can come out of diversity.

In my own country we have been taught to believe in the essential oneness of all mankind under our Supreme Creator. Man is a spark from the Divine Godhood. We have always believed that healthy progress requires the interaction of different ways of thought and action. I believe, with all humility, that we in the Orient have something to offer to the West in return for all that modern science has given us. If we can share with the West our concept of the basic unity of life and the oneness

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of the entire universe centered in our great Creator, we can be instrumental in spreading Mahatma Gandhi’s gospel of non-violence and Truth, which would go a long way in establishing the regime of real peace each one of us is dreaming about.

You will understand now I hope, why I believe that Rotary is more than a luncheon club; why it is more than meetings for pleasant fellowship; why it is more than a charitable organization. It is not just another service organization because its motto is not just service, but Service above Self. Rotary is a way of life; an attitude of mind; a posture of the soul. It is a new voice in the world of business; it is a world-wide call to representative businessmen to remold the modern world on a straighter, sweeter, more merciful and more humanistic basis.

These are the links in the golden chain you have helped to fashion. But we must move forward and upward and nearer to our goal faster and with more telling impact. Therefore, as your leader, I charge you to continue that task of giving - - giving of yourselves to your fellow human beings until it hurts. Let us learn to give and to forgive and, in so doing, to command all the resources - - physical, mental, and spiritual - - available to us. Let us remember not to let the end of life be forgotten in our preoccupation with the means of living.

It is not given to mortal man to foretell the future, but this I do predict, with all


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the confidence I can muster; that if the near-million Rotarians who will be privileged to be on our roster at the end of this Century can cry with one voice Rotary's message of "Service above Self", a spiritual force will be generated which will be stronger than any material force on this earth. Do you doubt my words? Then it will good to remember these words of wisdom, "Not by power nor by might but by the spirit" can the tensions of life be overcome. If you still doubt you will be doubting history.

Not very long ago, in a country of the East, a man who was described as a "naked faquir" generated in millions of his countrymen a power which he called "soul-force", and, without armies or armament he pitted this soul-force against the might of a great empire and obtained the independence of his homeland in an atmosphere of friendliness and good will without shedding a drop of blood.

The time is not far distant when we can foresee a fusion of science and philosophy of the spirit. May I draw your attention to two words – the Anglo-Saxon word, "Atom", and the Sanskrit word, "Atman"? They obviously look similar and are derived from the same origin. The word, "Atom", is derived from the Greek word, "Atomas" which had its origin in the Aryan languages, including Sanskrit. Whilst the West concentrated on the material aspects of the atom, the East found in the "Atman" the spiritual core of the universe. Now the day is not

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far off when science will accept the truth that the motivating power in the universe is the spirit found in the Atman and even in its material manifestation, the Atom. And

it is on this unified force, the spirit which alone binds mankind together as a family, that Rotary bases its philosophy - - this concept of the essential oneness of all human-kind.

It was the late President Woodrow Wilson who said, "If we can harness the moral conscience of the world we shall have a force greater than armies." And this is what Rotary is attempting to achieve, through its reliance upon self-subduing conscience in each of us and in giving us ready-made opportunities to cut across boundaries, borders, mountains and oceans for a fuller realization of our kinship with fellow human beings. We must seize those opportunities, fellow Rotarians with all the power we possess; this we must do, if you and I are true to the name of Rotary. "Help thy brother's boat across the river and, lo, thine own hast reached the shore" - - these are the wise words of ancient Indian proverb. This is the way we are able to unshackle ail our creative resources and pave the way for the time when

"The war drums throb no longer

When the battle flags are furled

In the Parliament of Man,

The Federation of the World."


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This, therefore is my challenge to you for the Roaring Sixties and the years ahead of us. Are we prepared to face the future with humbleness in our hearts, and go forth, a torch-bearers of Rotary, to serve your fellowmen? Are we? If so, and I know you are ready not only to Kindle the Spark Within but to fan it into the living image of a world-fellowship on a person-to-person basis, let us conclude with this little prayer:

"Lead, kindly light, amid the encircling gloom,

Lead thou me on,

The night is dark and I am far from home,

Lead thou me on."



CONTRIBUTION – July 3rd, 1963

It is rather amazing to look back over the years from Paul P. Harris 1910-1911 to Carl Miller 1963-1964 and to Charles Pettengill 1964-1965. I have known them all. It could not be said they were all great men in either business or the professions, or that they were great orators. Some of the poorest orators had great hearts of gold and a personality that attracted all men. Nitish Laharry who has just completed a fine year has left a feeling of humanity but also great strength of character and purpose. Rotary was indeed fortunate in its first four Presidents. Paul Harris (2 years) a lawyer, then Glenn C. Mead of Philadelphia, another fine character,

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and also a lawyer then Russell F. Greiner, a lithographer who lived to be 92 plus and remained active to almost the last. His Five Way Test has created many good laughs. Then Frank L. Mulholland from Toledo and another lawyer. That makes three out of the first four from the legal profession. These four are the men who laid the foundation for Rotary and as the years pass and Rotary grows in numbers and in prestige, our hats are off to these four men. Let us not forget that all four had that fine, wise and capable secretary, Chesley R. Perry to help guide the ship of state. Since he presided at the founding of the National Assn. of Rotary Clubs of America at Chicago in 1910, he was familiar with very argument and every suggestion. Until he retired at Toronto in June 1942 (32 full years) it seemed he was a real encyclopedia of information. Rarely did he have to refer to the printed records but when there was a ‘doubting Thomas’ at a meeting, he always knew exactly where to go for proof. Rotary as we know it could not exist without Ches. Perry. When he left then followed Phil Lovejoy, an educated man with long Rotary stewardship. Then when Phil retired in 1952, Geo. R. Means (still Gen. Secy. in ’63) was well grounded and ready to carry on. Only three Secretaries in Rotary’s 58 years and. all top men, Nitish was the 52nd Pres. The next two we know are from U.S. making 39 from U.S. out of 55; 4 from Canada; 2 from Britain; 1 from Mexico; 1 from France; 3 from S. America; 1 from Australia; 1 from Italy; 1 from New Zealand and 1 from India. Each country must be proud of its Rotary Presidents. Asia and all Rotary is proud of its first from that continent, Nitish Laharry of India. Canada has provided 4 and all did fine jobs. May it always be thus.






By - Nitish C. Laharry,

President of Rotary International,


Points to develop:

(a) If you were to choose the most important area of Rotary information, what would it be?

(b) Has your club developed a successful way of communicating Rotary information? If so, what is it, how does it work and how successful has it been?

(c) How well do your club members know Rotary? Do they show that they are inadequately informed in any areas? If so, how does this affect them as Rotarians, and what can be done about it?

(d) To what extent can we use buzz sessions, fireside meetings, film strips, playlets and other techniques in developing a well-informed membership?

(e) How can the club bulletin be made more useful in disseminating Rotary information? Are there any techniques, other than the current ones, which can be used?

Therefore I urge you to "build from within" in your Rotary Club by:

(1) Designing programs and projects which enlist the best effort, of every member.

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(2) Strengthening the foundations of your club through careful adherence to the classifications principle;

(3) Making every committee a working committee and every member a participating members;

(4) Emphasizing the necessity for maintaining a sustained program of Rotary information and new member assimilation.



The Rotary Voice - January 4th, 1963.

Who profits most? It is the man

Who gives a boost where'er he can

Who’s on the square in all that's done

And trusts and helps the others on;

Who put his task above, mere self,

Who profits most? along with the rest

It is the man who serves the best.



Copyright© Daniel W. Mooers

Rotary® and Rotary International® are registered trademarks of Rotary International